Review of Affect, Emotion, and Subjectivity in Early Modern Muslim Empires: New Studies in Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Art and Culture

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Review of Affect, Emotion, and Subjectivity in Early Modern Muslim Empires: New Studies in Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Art and Culture
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  11/4/2019Affect, Emotion, and Subjectivity in Early Modern Muslim Empires: New Studies in Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Art and Culturecaareviews.org/reviews/3564#.Xb_AnZozY2w1/3 A Publication of the College Art Association Concise, critical reviews of books, exhibitions, and projects in all areas and periods of art history and visual studies Search Review CategoriesAbout caa.reviewsBook ReviewsExhibition ReviewsEssaysRecent Books in the ArtsDissertationsSupportersView CAA JournalsVisit the CAA WebsiteSubscribe to CAA Newsletter August 28, 2019Kishwar Rizvi, ed.  Affect, Emotion, and Subjectivity in Early Modern Muslim Empires: New Studies inOttoman, Safavid, and Mughal Art and Culture Arts and Archaeology of the Islamic World, vol. 9. Leiden,the Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 2017. 224 pp.;94 ills. Cloth $140.00 (9789004340473) Peyvand FirouzehCrossRef DOI: 10.3202/caa.reviews.2019.90Attention to structures of patronage in the creation of works of art and architecture has furthered ourunderstanding of the sociopolitical context of material culture in the Islamic world. However, thisapproach has also overshadowed questions of materiality and a more comprehensive range of human-object relationships. In an attempt to redress this imbalance, scholars have increasinglypushed the roles of the artist, the audience, and the multisensorial experience of spaces and objectsto the forefront of the field. Kishwar Rizvi’s  Affect, Emotion, and Subjectivity in Early Modern MuslimEmpires  represents a collective effort to develop a discourse of reception, audience, intentionality,and devotional practices by infusing the methods of social art history with an embodied history of art.To achieve this, the essays in this edited volume study a wide range of works of art and architecturenot only as sites of patronage and historical information but also as bearers of subjective andemotional experience. The contributions’ focus lies on artists and their self-fashioning, as well as theaudience and its devotional and affective responses to the work, all of which are understudied issuesin scholarship on Islamic art.The first two chapters study the status of artists through signatures in architecture and manuscripts.The opening essay by Sussan Babaie explores the social position of architects on the basis of visualclues: signatures on major Timurid (1370–1507) and Safavid (1501–1722) monuments. Warningagainst the fetishization of such signatures as evident signs of individuality and self-expression, sheconsiders these inscriptions’ frequency, manner of design, location in relation to the patron’s name,and urban visibility, and argues for a socially constructed concept of authorship that was embeddedwithin specific professional networks. The following chapter by Marianna Shreve Simpson sheds lighton the convention of hidden signatures by illuminators and painters in Timurid and Safavidmanuscripts. Moving past the seemingly contradictory relationship between the function of thesignature as a mark of authorship and the self-effacing practice of inconspicuously including them inminiscule scripts, she suggests that we read these signatures as competitive assertions of calligraphicskill rather than signs of the artists’ humility. Both essays challenge the presumed primacy of thecalligrapher’s social status. This emphasis on the calligrapher in Islamic art history rests not only onthe relative scarcity of sources regarding other professions but also, as Babaie points out, onhistoriographic weight given to the art of writing in light of its connection to the Qur’an in definingIslamic art as a field.Continuing with the problematics of reading authors’ visibility as a straightforward indication of individualism, Emine Fetvacı focuses on author portraits in Ottoman illustrated manuscripts from thesixteenth and seventeenth centuries. She argues that an increase in author portraits at this timecontributed to a stronger sense of the objecthood of books. These portraits turned a book intosomething more than just its content, reminding viewers of the labor invested in its production.Considering the financial uncertainties that court historians faced, Fetvacı invites us to read theseportraits not merely as static signs of class, but also as indicators of social status in the making:performances intended to assert and maintain authority.Transitioning away from authors and artists, Christiane Gruber’s essay directs our attention toaudience and the blurry boundaries between iconoclasm and iconophilia. Through a close reading of fourteenth- to sixteenth-century figural paintings of the Prophet Muhammad and other holy figuresalongside rare textual evidence about their alteration, she convincingly challenges the dominantdiscourses on Islamic iconoclasm by distinguishing between intentional and unintentionalinterventions. Intentional intervention, such as erasing eyes or veiling figures, was a controlled act,rooted not only in iconoclasm but also in the desire to ensure the survival of images in an acceptablyaltered form. On the other hand, unintentional damage—usually caused by repeated pious handlinglike rubbing and kissing the surface—reflects the role of the figural image as a locus of affectionateand devotional response.Sylvia Houghteling’s chapter discusses the sensual properties of textiles as mediators betweenpatrons and audiences in Mughal courtly culture, with specific attention to the court of Akbar (r.1556–1605). She starts with a critique of the place of textiles in the art historical canon vis-à-vistheir material and metaphorical potency for the study of emotions, and reflects on the methodologicalcomplexities of writing an embodied history of art in general. Houghteling’s main questions center ontextiles’ role in the politics and poetics of courtly exchange. She shows how the exchange of textiles  11/4/2019Affect, Emotion, and Subjectivity in Early Modern Muslim Empires: New Studies in Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Art and Culturecaareviews.org/reviews/3564#.Xb_AnZozY2w2/3 was entangled with corporeal, sensual, and emotional intentions: an intimate act that becomes all themore remarkable in light of the social status of the Mughal ruler, the size of his collections, and thereach of his empire.Moving questions of subjectivity to the urban realm, Chanchal Dadlani explores the embodiedexperience of eighteenth-century Mughal Delhi. Her core argument posits a shift of urban order inDelhi around 1700, roughly half a century after it became the Mughal capital. She traces theincreasing concentration and significance of activities beyond the palace walls by studying the fabricof the city alongside contemporary literature. Drawing on examples from several shrines and place-centered literary sources that furnish a veritable catalog of spatial and sensory experiences, shedemonstrates how Mughal rulers capitalized on this new urban order as a source of legitimacy at atime when their power was waning. Arguing for a breakdown of social hierarchies in the city, Dadlanishows how the urban gaze shifted from the private, imperial court to the more public realms of theurban elite.Sunil Sharma continues with the topic of transformed urban subjectivity in eighteenth- andnineteenth-century Mughal society. Taking the poems of Fa’iz Dihlavi (d. 1738) as a case study, hedetects a shift from poems written about the private palace grounds to those about public places,such as wells and rivers—a process that converges with a repositioning of the erotic gaze toward mento one toward Hindu women in the city. While Sharma’s focus is on poetry, he also extends theargument to representative paintings of the period as objects that showcase similar shifts. He offers aclose reading of linguistic hybridity—combinations of Persian and Hindavi modes of poetry—andreveals how, against the wider backdrop of an emergent ethnographic gaze in the period, such hybridwritings broadened the traditional canon by subverting established gender norms in a transformedurban order.Jamal Elias’s chapter looks at representations of emotions in paintings, etchings, and photographs inthe Ottoman world, with a focus on Mevlevi Sufis (followers of the thirteenth-century poet Rumi). Theessay cautions readers that despite our ability to recognize sentiments in a given historical work, asmodern viewers we cannot access the precise nature of these emotions because their representationsrely on inherently ambiguous forms of metaphoric speech and somatic description. It is fitting toreflect on the methodological limits of the history of affect and subjectivity at the end of an anthologythat explores the potential of such lines of inquiry. However, while Elias’s underlying concern—thedanger of assuming continuities of behaviors and values across time and space—is understandable, itis odd that he appears to prefer modern over pre- and early modern material (i.e., early Ottoman andEuropean photography versus fourteenth- to sixteenth-century painting) and texts over images.Despite problematizing the modern gaze as an impediment to understanding pre- and early modernmaterial, the author does not engage with the questionability of European and ethnographic gazes.Nor does he interrogate the limits of language in describing emotions, especially when it comes tomystical experience. Nevertheless, Elias’s worries about the accessibility of “srcinal” emotions mayoffer a middle ground moving forward. Specifically, building on the kinds of contextualized, embodiedhistories that the previous essays in the volume offer, focusing on the study of metaphor andambiguity as artistic resources and their relationship with intention, might well lead the way forfuture affective and sensorial histories of art.All the essays in the collection engage with questions laid out by the editor from the outset and arestructured so that each chapter takes several connecting threads in new directions. One question thatthe editor could have scrutinized further relates to the anthology’s premise: why empires? While Rizvidiscusses the reasons for the book’s emphasis on the early modern period, such as expressions of selfhood vis-à-vis the expansion of exchange and knowledge of the world, the choice of empiresversus other forms of government as part of the framework for a study of subjectivity and emotionscould have been explained and/or problematized.As a collective attempt at addressing questions of affect, subjectivity, and multisensorial experiencein the field of Islamic art, the book would appeal to a broad audience that includes specialists andnonspecialists alike. The volume’s engagement with the status of the artist, for example, could be of interest to historians of Western medieval and Renaissance art. By asking such questions of pre- andearly modern material, this anthology makes an important contribution to the broader discipline of arthistory, as well as history, comparative literature, cultural studies, anthropology, and religiousstudies.Peyvand FirouzehLecturer in Islamic Art, University of SydneyPlease send comments about this review to editor.caareviews@collegeart.org.
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