Searching for Vocation . Education and the Romanian Women's Movement in Bukovina (1850-1900)

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The research on the history of the women's emancipation movement in Romania is no longer an absolute novelty in the Romanian historiography. Yet, for the former Austrian province of Bukovina (united in 1918 with Romania), this movement remains a
  Hariea Mareci-Sabol “Şean cel Mare” Universiy o Suceava, Romania Şean Purici “Şean cel Mare” Universiy o Suceava, Romania “Searching for Vocation”. Education and the Romanian Women’s Movement in Bukovina (1850-1900)  Abstract: Te research on he hisory o he women’s emancipaion movemen   in Ro-mania is no longer an absolue novely in he Romanian hisoriography. Ye, or he ormer Ausrian province o Bukovina (unied in 1918 wih Romania), his move-men remains a ormidable conemporary challenge, as long as i has been superficial-ly analysed by boh he Romanian hisorians and he specialiss in he hisory o he  Ausrian monarchy. Tis opic can open up a new field o invesigaion on he emale universe whose dynamics can be consanly exposed o a variey o known or poen-ial quesions. We choose o see how he discourse on he educaion o Romanian  women has evolved, observing he combinaion o conservaive and progressive ideas and he principles on which amily and sociey educaion should be based. Keywords : Bukovina, women, educaion, emancipaion, naional movemen Introduction Te challenges ha eminis approach launches on he Romanian hisorio-graphical discourse are likely o direc he researcher’s atenion o hemes, consrucions, conceps, mehods, and sources o he mos diverse and aypical sources. In he recen decades, a number o Romanian researchers – especially rom Buchares and Cluj Napoca– have shown a srong ineres in he women’s  38 Hariea Mareci-Sabol, Şean Purici hisory, reconsidering, in his respec, he pariculariies o a marginalized group under he social rigor and specific economic and culural circumsanc-es. From his perspecive, hey have ried o provide answers o a undamenal quesion, which sums up many opporuniies and varians, namely: how much can he women’s hisory conribue o a uller knowledge o he learning pas?  Alernaively, in oher words, can we find a specific rhyhm o eminine influ-ence in he hisory o Romanians? Tis was also he saring poin o his sudy,  which is kep ou o he gender concep as i is defined in he eminis heory and philosophy. Te presen research proposes a presenaion o he emale hyposases, as hey emerge rom he public discourse and he atiudes and  behaviours o he women in Bucovina.From a spaial poin o view, we sopped on he easernmos province o he Ausrian Empire, whose hisory urges or mulidisciplinary research, in ac-cordance wih is diverse invenory, which is sill insufficienly exploied. Even hough, afer 1990, one can speak o an enhusiasic and prolific recovery o aspecs relaed o social lie as a whole, he knowledge o he emale universe in Bucovina is sill in is beginnings. Ta is why our analysis presens he dialec-ics o visions on he role and uncions o he Romanian woman in Bucovina, especially in amily and educaion. Developed on he line o an accumulaive hisory, his sudy highlighs he characerisics o a group ha canno be ex-raced rom he conex in which i was ormed and ransormed. Te women of Bucovina and the beginnings of the Romanians’ national movement Te srcins o ideas abou he posiion o women in he hisory o Bucovina are inexricably linked o he ehnic, social and inellecual pariculariies o he naional movemen. Te Romanian naional sel-asserion has gahered is orces rom differen sources. For example, preserving ehnic ideniy hrough language culivaion has become a poliical acic and a way o assering pro- vincial righs agains Joseph II’s cenralism aimed a erasing he memory o he medieval sae o Moldova. 1  A he same ime, adherence o he docrines o Enlighenmen creaed social and inellecual precondiions or a naion-al awakening. Since he beginning o he 19h cenury, several eachers have  been asking he Habsburg auhoriies o prin newspapers and calendars “or he Moldovan inelligence”, alhough he level o lieracy o he Romanian 1 M.Ș. Ceaușu,  Bucovina habsburgică de la anexare la Congresul de la Viena [Habsburg Bukovina rom annexaion o he Vienna Congress], Fundația academică „A.D. Xeno-pol”, Iași, 1998, p. 230.  39 “Searching or Vocaion”.Educaion and he Romanian Women’s Movemen ... populaion in Bucovina was very low. Moreover, he reorms underaken in his period, in he field o educaion, led o he creaion o a ruly vicious cir-cle, many Romanian parens reusing o send heir children o school or con-essional reasons and because he overwhelming majoriy o children did no know he German and Polish languages in which he lessons were augh. 2 One o he Romanian inellecuals o he ime, Ion Sbiera, wroe he ollowing: “For more han hal a cenury, in he public schools o his counry, he Bukovinian Romanian did no find he opporuniy o culivae and learn as litle as he could in he naional language; all culure was acquired only in oreign lan-guages and also in a oreign direcion”. 3  In addiion, he saisics showed ha wo-hirds o he pupils’ coningens were boys. In 1839, o he oal number o children enrolled in school, he girls represened 34.4%, and he number o Romanian girls was very small. Such a siuaion – wroe he menioned auhor – would las unil 1848, when, among he claims o he Romanian inellecual elie, i was also he righ o learn in is moher ongue. However, he women’s involvemen in he naional issue had compleed he male iniiaives in heir amilies or communiy. Tis is he case o he “noble Bukovinian owner”, he Romanian boyar Eudoxiu, considered by his conemporaries as “one o he mos pillars o he religion and church”; his home had become “he alar o our naionaliy and our language”, his wie and daughers were seen as “locums o vesal virgins near he sacred fire”, while his sons were he “fighers or he holy cause”. 4  Ilinca (Elena) Hurmuzachi, he wie o Eudoxiu, planned o raise heir welve children in a genuine naional spiri: “My beloved husband, le’s ake care ha, in his mixure o languages, our children should remain wha  we are, Romanians, preserving heir naional eelings all heir lie”. 5  However, he moher’s decision did no resric access o qualiy educaion. In ac, many o he wealhy Romanian amilies have chosen o send heir children “abroad” o complee a harmonious inellecual and spiriual profile. In he case o he Hurmuzachi amily, all he boys sudied in Vienna, Paris, and Berlin, while he girls gained a proper home educaion and insrucion, learning five oreign lan-guages, music and dance. I is he way in which he amily assured o all heir successors a good social posiion. Te naional background, educaion, and 2 C. Ungureanu, Învățămânul primar din Bucovina [Primary Educaion in Bukovina], Civias, Chișinău, 2007, p.36. 3 I. G. Sbiera, Familia Sbiera după radițiune și isorie. Aminiri din viaţa auorului  , [Te Sbiera Family by radiion and Hisory. Memories rom he auhor’s lie  ], Cernăuţi, 1899,  p. 148-149. 4 G. Barițiu, Familia Hurmuzache [Te Hurmuzache Family] , „ransilvania”, 1878, XI, No. 4 (February, 15), p. 38. 5 I. Nisor,  Isoria Bucovinei [Te Hisory o Bukovina], Humanias, Bucureși, 1991, p. 57.  40 Hariea Mareci-Sabol, Şean Purici las bu no leas he consisen wealh allowed he Hurmuzachi descendans o be engaged in he naional movemen; one o hem, who had he same name as his aher, Eudoxius (or Eudoxius Freiherr von Hormuzaki) was one o he supporers o he ransormaion o Bukovina rom a Galician province ino an auonomous duchy o he Ausrian crown; moreover, in he second hal o he nineeenh cenury, he was appoined, on wo occasions, as he capain o he duchy. In urn, Elena Hurmuzachi’s daughers carried on heir moher’s belies,  being concerned wih all kinds o philanhropic acions and promoing radi-ional Romanian music. In 1852, in one o his leters, a leader o he Romanian naional movemen in Bukovina remembered he wo sisers who coninued o gaher he olk songs and “pu hem on he noes”. Te acion began in 1849,  when Eliza and Eurosina seleced local ariss, paying hem in exchange or he radiional Romanian songs hey idenified and colleced. More han 30 songs would go o Leipzig where he composer Karol Mikuli had o ranscribe hem in a cul orm. 6 Te involvemen o women in he movemen o emancipaion o he Ro-manians in Bukovina canno be seen as an expression o heir eminis acivism,  bu raher as a maniesaion o heir parioism. I is a similar siuaion o ha in ransylvania where, in 1850, he” Romanian Women’s Reunion” was cre-aed wih he (srcinally) goal o “raising he poorer Romanian orphan girls”. Resonaing wih is members’ aciviy, Emilia Porumbescu 7  rom Bukovina donaed money o his organisaion; “heir example – she saed – have awak-ened in me, a Bukovinian, he power and he rue desire o no sand around doing nohing while my sisers in ransylvania are glaring beore he naion  wih a virue worhy o all praise and graiude”. 8  Wheher hey were paricipaing in various culural aciviies (musical or lierary reunions), or were organizing meeings a which he leaders o he naional movemen paricipaed, hey ried o demonsrae and validae heir “useul parioism”. Abou hese wroe, in 1878, one o he paricipans in he Revoluion o 1848, a reugee rom ransylvania on he Hurmuzachi amily esae: “he men o he naion are no allowed o disregard he devoion o hose women who have worked and are sill working on he creaion o our civilizaion-saver. Tanks o Heaven, we are able o boas abou a lo o women,  whose charming raining is based on heir Chrisian virue, on heir amiliar and naional virues. I hey, like he wise virgins in he Gospel, limi heir ac-iviy in he amily circle and answer in secre, as beore he alar o he house, 6 G. Barițiu, Familia Hurmuzache …op. ci. 7 Emilia Porumbescu was he amous Romanian composer Ciprian Porumbescu’s moher. 8  Apud M. Iacobescu,  Din isoria Bucovinei  , Academia Română, Bucureși, 1993, p.467.  41 “Searching or Vocaion”.Educaion and he Romanian Women’s Movemen ... o heir vocaion desined o hem by God and naure, he duy o men is o make hem known o he grea amily and o disinguish each one, according o heir meris”. 9  I was a hymn dedicaed o Romanian women who, “in a pe-riod o universal pessimism,” alhough hey did no hrow hemselves in ron o he “Russian and urkish bayones”, had he “soul srengh and courage” o eel and oresee he success o he “naional cause”. Such atiude and encour-agemens should no have been overlooked, he auhor urging his ellow men o honor women: “Honor he virues o Romanian women, I ask he men o he Romanian naion”. 10  Beyond he pariarchal concepions ha dominaed he Romanian amily in Bukovina in he 1850s and he prevailing organisa-ion o public and privae relaions afer he widely shared religious and secular paradigm (“he man is he head o he woman”), he realiy indicaed a new responsibiliy o he Romanian woman: he maernal parioism. Educational Foundations. Family’s rules and standards. Te image o he aihul and loving wie, a person educaed in he spiri o giving up, he man’s suppor or good and hard is a consan in he masculine discourse o epoch. I has been consecraed in Bukovina precisely hrough he  behavioural models specific o he middle class, wihou ignoring he Wesern influences o he German persuasion. Beyond he discriminaory naure o he  Ausrian Civil Code, women in he empire enjoyed more righs han hose in oher European saes, especially in erms o propery righs. An example o his is provided again by he Hurmuzachi women who manage heir inheried and acquired goods in accordance wih he needs o heir “amily and naion”. Troughou her lie, he woman was subjec o he auhoriy o a man, wheh-er he was her aher, or afer he marriage, her husband whose name she was supposed o wear, demonsraing once again his primacy. In he couple’s lie ranspired he radiional model in which he man remained “he head”, even i he wise woman (or he “head-urning neck” as i is described by radiion) could give good advice. In any compeiion beween he wo, he man was go-ing o be he winner: “Everywhere a woman has noble and grea eelings, he man akes an example rom her o compee”. 11  Addiionally, he moral norms – based on rigorous religious preceps –imposed differen behavioural sand-ards in public lie or men and women, he later being permanenly defined as a wie and moher wih a limied universe o her maerniy. Tereore i was 9 G. Barițiu, Familia Hurmuzache …op. ci.  , p. 39. 10  Ibidem. 11  Ibidem.
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