Secret Ideological-Political Messages of Hollywood Movies: Flags of Our Fathers and Examples of Honor and Courage Films

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This study aims to reveal some contributions of American films to ideological discourses during the Cold War and after the end of it in terms of world political history. Moreover, it investigates how ideological l and political code-reflections are
  71 Интеркултурна комуникация, медии, изкуства  Intercultural Communication, Media, Arts Secret Ideological-Political Messages of Hollywood Movies: Flags of Our Fathers and Examples of Honor and Courage Films Ekrem Çelikiz Harran University  –   Fine Art Faculty E-mail: Abstract: This study aims to reveal some contributions of American films to ideological discourses during the Cold War and after the end of it in terms of world political history. Moreover, it investigates how ideological l and political code-reflections are represented in those films. In this study, ideological and political representation forms implicit and explicit propaganda activities in American Hollywood films, are determined. The method of film scanning and film analysis is applied to identify cinematic elements that are used to shape the ideological discourses. As a result of the study, it is concluded that American Hollywood films effectively has used cinema as a propaganda tool. Keywords:  propoganda cinema, ideological cinema, political cinema, Hollywood secret codes, Hollywood cinema language, film language, film analysis. Introduction Cinema is one of the important discoveries affecting the technical and artistic lifestyle of the twentieth century. Cinema began to be watched by the masses from the first years of its emergence. Cinema has been initially seen only as an entertainment tool. However,  propagandists who have discovered the intense interest of the masses in cinema and people who want to spread their ideology to a wider audience have adopted cinema as a tool and have started to use it for their own purposes. Many countries have created their own cinema and effectively used the cinema in order to disseminate their own system and ideology to the mass. Cinema has  been used for propaganda purposes from the outset to promote ideologies. During the Cold War, the United States fought against Russiaas its ideologically-political uncompromising rival. In that period, almost every way has been used to defeat the other side and to bring down their ideas and ideologies. Propaganda is also very important in this kind of war. Especially in American Hollywood cinema, many films were shot in parallel with the policy of the United States in foreign policy. Those films were shown not only to the American audience, but also to other countries under the US hegemony that polarized the world during the Cold War period. In those films, American culture has been constantly glorified, with its open or secret negative information about Russia throughout the Hollywodian films. For example, in those films, America has been presented as a political or cultural strong nation, justified, appreciated and admired. This was particularly observed in films that were shot in partnership with the Pentagon and the United States Department of Foreign Affairs, In addition to its dramaturgical and ideological points, American cinema has demonstrated its impact with stereotypical Hollywood cinema and has begun to use propaganda globally.  Nowadays, the Hollywood cinema industry continues to produce ideological and political films in the interests of America that it expects and protects by shooting high-budget films. The reason for choosing this study is to reveal the contribution of American films to the Cold War after the end of the cold war in terms of world political history and to determine how ideological and political code-reflections are reflected in these films; on the other hand, to determine the ideological and political forms of presentation in American Hollywood films,  72 and implicit and explicit propaganda activities. It is also to reveal the political and ideological changes in American films. Basic definitions It will be useful to make a basic definition of ideology and propaganda in order to reveal the reflections of ideological and political representations in the cinema studies. The French ideologue Antoine Destutt de Tracy used the term ideology for the first time in 1797 to mark the science of ideas that would be used to provide the right to think for everyone. [1] Marx's definition of ideology is noteworthy as well. According to Marx, ideology is conscious narrative, false social consciousness is a social consciousness that distorts real structures and is  blind to them. Lieber argued that Marx considered ideology as “compulsory false social consciousness” . [2] According to Jowett and Linton, cinema is never far away from value judgments, ideological or political tendencies, regardless of the genre. This includes the products of commercial cinema. [3] As reported by Louis Gianetti, who is known for his research on the relationship between cinema and ideology, shows strong links between films and ideology. in Gianetti ’s words, ‘ideology is usually a structure of ideas that reflect the intense demands and needs of an individual, group or culture’. This  term, which is more evocatived among  politicians or party platforms may also mean an implicit total of values, including filmmaking. Almost every film presents us with hidden value  judgments based on right or wrong, positive or negative filmmakers with ideal human behavior and role models. In short, each film,  behavior, institutions tend to give ideological viewpoints through certain characters. [4] Shortly after the invention of cinema, it was understood how effective it was for propaganda. Cinema is one of the effective tools for propaganda. Cinema is an effective tool for propaganda. Propaganda; “It is a conscious behavior towards influencing, changing or controlling the  beliefs, opinions and behaviors of other groups through individuals and groups in accordance with the demands of the prop agandist.” [5] According to Laswell, propaganda; it has been defined that only meaningful symbols, or, more concretely and less flawlessly speaking, the expression of thought through with stories, rumors, news, pictures and other forms of social communication. [6] Propaganda can be made in different ways. The secret propaganda used in cinema uses these types more. White propaganda : It is clearly the propaganda, the source is clear. Clear and transparent It attaches importance to accuracy, so it also raises confidence. The main material is news. Gray propaganda : It is blurry propaganda. The source is unclear and it can be uncorroborated. Its main material is rumors. Its purpose is to show something of uncertain, faulty, incomplete like a complete and sufficient; complete, adequate, something of open space is to shade by making it look suspicious. Contradictions are created and the question mark is conjured up in the minds. Black propaganda : The source is specific, but is shown to come from other sources. In this method, cheating, lying, slander and fake evidence are free and confidentiality is essential. It aims to change facts, shake beliefs and confuse public opinion. In this context, it aims to make the interlocutors suffer a spiritual collapse. [7]  73 Using the propaganda in American cinema A large part of the American film industry represents the official ideology of the United States. In the American cinema, war, security and armed violence are handled with a large percentage. American policy, which changed since the 1980s, directed Hollywood and revealed important films. The films of that period reflected and nurtured changing policies. One of the most striking changes of the period was the return of the myth of the heroic, undefeated white hero, who engaged in war-tout. In the 60s James Bond series successfully have marketed American political and cultural ideology to other countries. The subject of the Bond films is the Soviet Union, which always threatens the free world, or the only bad that wants to rule the world, or the plan that seeks to take over the world. [8] The Bond series narrates the elimination of the east-western attacks =  by using the incredible capabilities of a single hero and the elimination of advanced technology. Bond films address the expectation of identification with the western audience. The aesthetics of Bond films appeal to the viewers' beauty, the beauty of Bond and the beauty of the Bond girls and the beauty of the places inhabited by the film and the beauty of the places they live.Sex, violence, flashy consumer goods and advanced techniques are exhibited in fetish dimensions. [9] The scenario of the Bond films is under the supervision of the Pentagon film liaison office. Officials of this bureau asked for censored of some dialogues in the script of a James Bond film, “Tomorrow Never Dies/Yarın Asla Ölmez,” and requested that the British screenwriter be able to use the US Navy's ships and helicopters. They said that a sentence in the script could damage newly-formed relations between America and Vietnam and lead to an international crisis. [10] Rocky and Rambo are during the 80s when there were indications that the US was gaining superiority and capitalism seemed to march towards victory. The cinematic hero that best summarizes of this period is Rambo. The first Rambo film in 1982 was the repair of an American male ego wounded in Vietnam. In Rambo's second film in 1985, Rambo travels to Vietnam as a killing machine, destroys hundreds of Vietnamese and Russian soldiers, and liberates American troops from hostage and brings them back to the country as a hero. [11] In the same direction, in the Cold War years, with the temperature of the political agenda; The Rocky series is about the US-The Soviet Union conflict and begins to emphasize the US's superiority, honesty and pacifism; One of the most striking examples is that Rambo attempted to rescue the occupied Afghanistan by the Soviet Union and to free the country from the hands of the invaders. [12] Super Heroes In Cinema American cinema has increased the domination of the cinema by creating heroes that can be defined as classical myth. The first imaginary hero, called “ Superman ” , was created by Jerry Siegel and Joseph Shuster in the 1930s, when America experienced great economic crisis. Two friends who are fond of science fiction create a superhero with superhuman powers thinking that the mass will be overwhelmed by the economic problems of that period. Although it is the first cartoon character, it is shown in the cinema in 1978.In the following years, Superman films were filmed in series. This superhero, launched in the whole world, equipped with American colors, has managed not to contradict with American politics, traditions and family structure, not only while saving the world, but also doing a lot of work from recreating the world to joining the Vietnam War. [13] Heroes such as Batman, Spiderman, Hulk and Terminator have been presented to audiences for the same purpose. The change in American policy after the Cold War was reflected in cinema. Films such as Rambo, Rocky, Superman contribute to a direct propaganda, and philosophically  74 confusing films instead of heroes, were taken to question life. In the 1999 Matrix film was covered idealized “information warfare” and “knowledge domination”. The film is a story about manipulating the norms and criteria of reality that have been made one of the main parameters of the creation and perception of reality by cyber space age power centers. The Matrix questions the effect of the virtual strategy that can reve al the fantastic effects of ‘invisible’ destructiveness in the project of increasing the power of state power in favor of the oligarchy, which is able to completely distort the relations between the individual, the social world and power and manage strategic tools based on space power rather than a terrorist structure. [14] In Hollywood cinema, many more films were made for American propaganda. Another film that is considered to be effective and successful is ‘’Er Ryan's Rescue’’ directed by Steven Spielberg. The film tells the heroic  battles of six soldiers who were assigned to bring back an American soldier who died on the battlefield. This film causes collective shock in the United States. Hundreds of fainting in the halls where the film is shown and the old soldiers having nervous breakdown are the first symptoms. The Pentagon urgently announce a call center number and opens a psychological support service to respond to thousands of calls from people suffering with grief and sadness. [15] American troops fought valiantly with the German Nazis in Normandy in the movie Saving Private Ryan, American troops fought valiantly with German Nazis in a place called Normandy in movie of Saving Private Ryan. What is the horror of the concept of war or what the quality of the Second World Warit doesn't matter where they are, why they die. In fact, the American flag, which fluctuates at the beginning and end of the film, is the main message of the film. [16] The attacks on September 11, 2001, a turning point in American history, have created a new material for Hollywood. With these attacks, the enemy has shown itself as the focus of terrorism that works globally and independently. September 11 is the reason for the meeting between the  big studio representatives in Hollywood, the president of the actors' union and the president's distinguished political adviser. The aim of the meeting was to support the American foreign  policy of “ the War Against Terrorism ”  with the Hollywood productions. As a result of this meeting, Hollywood supported the Pentagon's strategy with its films. Terrorism and war-oriented films such as “ The Sum of All Fears (2002) “ , “ Colleteral Damage (2002) ” , “ Once Upon a Time We were soldiers (2002) ”  and “ Black Hawk Down (2001) ”  were filmed. In addition to American Hollywood cinema, cinema has also developed in other countries. However, this film was not as effective as American Hollywood cinema. Yusuf ZiyaGökcek explained that the third cinema language was not as effective as the Hollywood cinema: According to the opinion of the directors in ‘’Africa or Asia’’, it was difficult for them to create a film language that would reflect their identity with the knowledge of the current perspective which is the prerequisite of an independent language. Because the cinema, from the date of the invention of the western bond was developed in a suitable way. [17] American Hollywood cinema has often used films as a propaganda tool. Although they wanted to use the cinema for propaganda in other countries than Hollywood cinema, the cinema of these countries was not as effective as Hollywood. Flags of our fathers film’s analysis Film Production Information’s  and Summary Duration: 132 minutes, Type: War, Production Year: 2006, Director: Clint Eastwood, Cast: Ryan Phillppe, Jesse Bradford, Barry Pepper, Paul Walker, Adam Beach, Benjamin Walker.  75 Summary  In the days when the Second World War continued in full swing in the Pacific Ocean, the US  Navy would make a strategically important extraction on a Japanese island called Iwo Jima. At the same time, five friends in the navy, who are back on duty, are excited to take part in this war, but they are aware that they will not be in the real conflict as their duties are hinterland. In December of 1944 year, Iwo Jima Island was besieged with tens of landing craft and all  preparations were completed for extraction. Iwo Jima in which a tiny and uninhabited island that starts with the power of conflict together with the first unity coming to the island, turned into complete hell. American troops were faced with resistance that they did not expect in this small Japanese island, which they thought they could capture in just a few days, and the clashes lasted longer than they expected. The five soldiers who have served back are also performing their duties. In the meantime, the highest peak of the cliffs of the island was captured by American soldiers and an American flag was erected here. A politician, who understands the importance of this planted flag, asks the commander to give him the flag. At the same time, the five soldiers who were back on duty were climbing the hill, which was seized for logistical support, and with they had another American flag. In accordance with the request of the commander politician, the first flag to be planted is dismantled to these five soldiers, and they are asked to plant a new one. In fact, while doing this duty, which is not so difficult, a photographer from the AP takes photographs of these five soldiers, and this photo has a huge impact on the American public. In a while, five soldiers are seen by all the people as devoted heroes of war and everyone wants to get to know them. In the later days of the war, two of the five soldiers die during the clashes. The politicians who grasp the deep influence of the photograph on the public, present these soldiers to the public and think of asking the American people to help them to contribute to the worsening economic situation. From Three surviving soldiers, John Bradley (Ryan Phillippe) who is medic of navy, Ira Hayes(Adam Beach),is red Indian srcin and not dislike being in view and Rene Gagnon (Jesse Bradford), a reporter who refrains from firing his gun, are brought to America by their unity. These people are introduced to the public while the American people are demanded money and thus it can taking on debt easier from them. However, these three soldiers, who think that their other friends and especially the first planted flag-bearing soldiers deserve to be more heroes than themselves, are not very pleased with the situation. They soul-searching with their own conscience. They are also aware that collecting money for war is vital to their friends.Ira Hayes, one of the protagonists who travel many American cities with long-lasting tours, cannot endure this situation and do his best to return to his unit. Eventually, Ira is sent to his unit by his commanders and the tour is continued by two soldiers. This case continues throughout the Second World War. After the war, heroes are an ordinary American citizen who lives their own lives anymore and they have a lifetime by struggling with the difficulties of life. However, they will never forget the real heroes who planted the first flag on the island and the other friends who planted the second flag together with them. 2.6.2. Secret Ideological and Political Codes in Film The film was analyzed according to Gianetti’s category of neutral, open and closed and to the  propaganda rules of J.M. Domenach as previously explained here. According to Gianetti's distinction, this film is a closed film. In this film, propaganda and all kinds of messages are given in a very master way as secret. In the film, newspaper headlines and some news photographs were used. Those who watched the film were asked to give an idea about that period. The clues about the politics and diplomatic situation of the period were given through these headlines. In the film, the feedback was used many times in order to provide simplicity. Normally, it is intended to show the war in an independent manner as bilateral in the film. But this is not the case in reality. In the film, the
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