Study of Medicinal Organisms Used by Tharu Ethnic Group (TEG) of Dekhatbhuli Area of Kanchanpur District, Nepal

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This study tried to document the traditional medicinal organisms and their parts used by Tharu ethnic group (hereafter TEG) and we documented a total of 22 animal species including 20 families which they used in treating 25 different ailments among
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  ABSTRACT This study tried to document the traditional medicinal organisms and their parts used by Tharu ethnic group (hereafter TEG) and we documented a total of 22 animal species including 20 families which they used in treating 25 different ailments among them 68.18% were wild species, 27.27% were domesticated and 4.55% belongs to other, and 103 plant species used in treating 86 different ailments among them 28 species were trees, 13 were shrubs, 51 were herbs and 11 were climber. Most of the animal species used  belongs to class mammalian. The study revealed that 51 plants were used for treating of single ailment and remaining 52 species of plants were used for treating more than one ailment. In present exploration we  proudly can say that TEG is very much rich from ethnobiological point of view. Data were collected through semi-structured open ended questionnaire survey, direct personal interviews with key informants (faith healers', they call them, Bharras and Guruwas) and through group discussions. Simple random sampling method was applied for the selection of respondents. The result showed that leaf is highly used in medicinal purposes among all other parts and is successively followed by the root and fruit. KEYWORD Tharu, Medicinal Ethnobiology, IK, Dekhatbhuli, Conservation. 1 Tribhuvan University, Central Department Of Zoology, Kirtipur, Nepal. 2 tribhuvan University, Siddhanath Science Campus, Kanchanpur, Nepal. History Received: 28 May 2019Accepted: 5 July 2019 Published: 13 October 2019 INTRODUCTION It is fact that if we are able to conserve forest ecosystem and take our great concern on climate change and, Himalayan country of Nepal is well known for her therefore, medicinal ethno-biology, it is certain that our richness in biodiversity and the indigenous knowledge of country will get economically enhanced. For this we all different ethnic groups. The term 'ethnic groups' means have to think about different anthropological activities the people living in one particular community since very that promotes rapid climatic alteration and put the long and it has assumed to have its own indigenous biodiversity in verge of extinction.traditional knowledge. The study of all the aspects of However, one of the local healers, Keshar Rana (aged 80) these communities in a scientific way is, therefore, known lamented in the point that the medicinal organisms which as ethno-biology. The word 'ethnobiology' means the were found easily in past years are hard to get in these multidisciplinary scientific study of the folk knowledge days. He added, youngsters are not keen in this traditional and cultural practices embodied in traditional medical knowledge and if this process is continued, he said that systems, with particular emphasis on the uses of natural this indigenous knowledge will lost in sooner coming and biological resources in the maintenance and future. restoration of normal functioning of human health (Berlin and Berlin, 2005). Manandhar (2002) showed that still due to the inaccessibility to the modern facilities about 70-80% of the total population of the country depends upon a wide range of medicinal plants and animals for their primary healthcare. Traditional medicines play an important role in maintaining the health care system in developing countries (Thapa et al., 2013). There are all total 125 different ethnic groups and 123 languages spoken as mother languages in Nepal (CBS, 2011). The study area comprises both the Tharu communities (Dangaura and Rana tharu) whose  population all over the country is 6.6% i.e. 1,737,470. Of them, 18,578 people lives in Dekhatbhuli Kanchanpur (NPHC, 2011).Indigenous people such as, rural communities, tribes, and ethnic societies have invaluable bank of knowledge, which is passed on verbally from one generation to another (Singh, 1995). Likewise, Tharu people are also very much rich in traditional ethnobiological knowledge. Figure 1 : One of the local healer, Keshar Rana (aged 80). Study of medicinal organisms used by Tharu Ethnic Group (TEG) in Dekhatbhuli area of Kanchanpur District, Nepal 1 1 2 Suraj Prasad Joshi, Lata Pant , Balram Awasthi Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Anveshika Publishing & Informatics  RESEARCH ARTICLE  1 Address for correspondence: Suraj Prasad JoshiTribhuvan University, Central Department Of Zoology, Kirtipur, Nepal.,  He insisted that rising climate is the principal cause for Results extinction of the locally available medicinal organisms. Previously Nepal is exporting the medicines locally Medico-ethno-zoology available in an illegal way, he added but due to lack of knowledge to conserve habitat, forest resources that were found in past days has extinct. Materials and MethodsStudy Area Dekhatbhuli predominately possesses Tharu community (both Dangaura and Rana). It lies in Kanchanpur district of Sudurpaschim province. It is  between latitudes 280 50’ N and longitude of 800 24’E. The Dekhatbhuli area lies in to three municipalities' viz. Krishnapur Municipality, Suklaphanta Municipality and Laljhadi Rural Municipality. The elevation ranges Figure 3:  The number of animals belonging to different from 160 m to 184 m (The Siwalik Hills). The average classes.annual rainfall of the district is 1775 mm. The average maximum temperature is 43°C while the average minimum temperature is 3°C.Primarily the simple random sampling was applied for the selection of interviewees. Then the field visit was conducted in five shifts during the range of three months from October 1 to December 30 of the year 2018. Primary data was obtained using key informant interview technique with faith healers' (Bharras and Guruwas) and other local stakeholders, teachers etc., Figure 4: Habitat of Animals Collected.following questionnaire method. Then the documented data were analyzed through pie-charts, bar-graphs etc., using MS Excel spread sheet, and during the course no animals and plants were harmed. Figure 5: Types of diseases cured by animals in numbers. Figure 2: Map of Kanchanpur district. Figure 6: Habitat of plant species. http://ijpbs.org/ International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences 2  Figure 7:  Types of diseases cured by plants. Figure 8:  Plant life form in numbers.  Figure 9:  Plant parts used for medicinal purposes. 3 http://ijpbs.org/ International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences  Table 1: Animals having medicinal values in Tharu ethnic group of Dekhatbhuli, Kanchanpur.   S.   N   Order   Family   Scientific name   Nepali/ Local name   Habit   Parts/   products   used   Name of the   ailment/disease treated  1. Artiodactyla Bovidae  Bos indicus Cow/Gaiya Domestic Urine, Milk Skindisease,Hand/ leg sprain 2. Artiodactyla Bovidae  Bubalus bubalis Buffalo/ Baisiya Domestic Dung, Butter Body pain, leg and mouth cracked 3. Artiodactyla Suidae Sus scrofa Pig/ Soura Domestic Mouth parts Chest pain 4. Galliformes Phasanidae Gallusgallusdomesticus Chicken/ Murga/Murgiya Domestic Egg, Blood, Meat Menstural disorder, Cold, Snake bite, Pneumonia 5. Lagomorpha Leporidae Orgodactylus sp. Rabbit/ Kharahaa Domestic Meat Asthma 6. Columbiformes Columbidae Columba livia Pigeon / Parewa Domestic Meat Muscular pain and Cold 7. Galliformes Phasanidae  Pavo cristata Peacock/ Mulla Wild Bone Heart pain 8. Accipitriformes Accipitridae Gyps sp. Vulture/ Giddha Wild Bone/Abdomen Fracture 9. Passeriformes Passeridae  Passer domesticus Bhagera Gagaya Wild Meat diminished sexual power 10. Passeriformes Corvidae Corvus macrorhynchos Jungle crow/ Kauwa Wild Tounge Impaired speaking in children 11. Artiodactyla Cervidae  Axis axis Spotted deer /Hirian Wild Antlers, Meat Fracture, Bone strengthening, Blurred vision 12. Hymenoptera Apidae  Apis cerana Honey bee Saahat Wild Honey, wax, larva Cough, Pneumonia, Weakness 13. Strigiformes Strigidae  Athene noctua Owl/ Khasutar Wild Eye(pesera) Eye problem 14. Carnivora Canidae Canis aurens Jackal /Sera/Seriya Wild Fat, Meat Rheumatism(Baath) 15. Probacidea Elephantiadae  Elephas maximus Elephant Hatiya/Hatini Wild Dung Leg sprain 16. Rodeatia Hystricidae  Hystrix indica Porcupine /Sehi Wild Meat Asthma 17. Squamata Agamidae Calotes versicolor Gardenlizard/Khirkhando Wild Meat Marasmus 18. Decapoda Cancridae Cancer pagurus Crab /Gingata Wild Meat Common cold 19. Decapoda Palaemonidae  Paleomon malcolmsonii Fish/ Jhinge Macha' Wild Meat Common cold 20. Anura Ranidae  Rana tigrina Frog/Mudka Wild Snake Bite 21. Primates Cercopithecidae  Maccaca mulata Monkey /Bandara Wild Meat Marasmus 22. Primates Homonidae  Homosapiens sapiens Manche ------ Milk Eye infection International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences http://ijpbs.org/ 4  Table 2: Plants having medicinal values in Tharu ethnic group of Dekhatbhuli, Kanchanpur. S.N Name Habitat Scientific name Plant life form Family Order Part used Medicinal applications Procedureof application 1 Aakashbeli (N/Th) C Cuscuta reflexa Climber Convolvulaceae Solanales Whole  plant Bone fracture Grinded finely and applied. 2 Aakh (N/Th) W Calotropis  procera Shrub Asclepiadaceae Gentianales Whole  plant # Bakhra ko  pet fulne rog Given to the goats. 3 Aap (N)/ Aam (Th) C  Magnifera indica Tree Anacardiaceae   Sapindales Leaf Diarrhea, dysentery Soup of bark and leaf is taken. Bark Common cold, diarrhea 4 Aduwa (N)/Adrak (Th) C  Zingiber officinale Herb Zingiberaceae Zingiberales Rhizome Indigestion, cough and throat pain Eaten directly or in vegetables. 5 Amala (N)/Aura(Th) C/W  Emblica officinalis Tree Euphorbiaceae Malpighiales Bark Asthma,  jaundice and swollen Bark powder is mixed with Barro and Harro and then eaten. 6 Amba(N/Th) C/W  Pisidium  guajava Tree Myrtaceae Myrtales Soft tips Headache Soft tips are grinded and applied to nose. 7 Anar(N)/Dadim (Th) C  Punica  gromatum Tree Puniaceae Myrtales Fruit Diarrhea and tonic Eaten directly or sometimes filtrate is also used. 8 Azwain(N/Th) C Trachysper mum ammi Herb Apiaceae Apiales Fruit Lactation and menstrual cramps Soup is prepared and eaten. 9 Badai (Th) W Tree Stem Infertility Hanged over neck for weeks. 10 Badam(N)/ Mumfali(Th) C  Arachis hypogaea Herb Fabaceae   Fabales Fruit Tonic and appetite Directly eaten. 11 Ban  pyaj(Th) W Urginea indica Herb Amaryllidaceae Liliales Rhizome Fever Eaten orally. 12 Ban tarul(Th) W  Dioscorea bulbifera Climber Dioscoreaceae Dioscoreales Rhizome and stem Piles Eaten orally by frying. 13 Banda Gobi (N) C  Brassica oleraceae Herb Brassicaceae Brassicales Leaf Cardiotonic, stomachic Leaf and seed is eaten along with vegetables Seed diuretic, laxative, stomachic 14 Bandralathi (Th) W Cassia  fistula L. Tree Fabaceae Fabales Leaf and root #Navi sujan  Paste is applied. 15 Barro (N)/ Bahera(Th) W Terminalia bellirica Tree Combrefaceae Myrtales Bark Asthma and swollen Bark powder is mixed with Amala and Harro and then eaten. 16 Basil (N/Th) W Ocimum basilicum Herb Labiateae Lamiales Leaf Tonsillitis Leaf paste is applied. 17 Bayer(N/Th) W  Zizyphus mauritiana Tree Rhamnaceae Rosales Leaf Scorpion bite Grinded leaf is applied to the bitten part. Root Parasitic attack on cattle Root soup is given to the cattles. 18 Bela  phul(Th) W  Jasminum  sambac Shrub Oleaceae Lamiales Flower Stomach pain # BELA ROG Flower is squeezed and its exudation is eaten orally. 19 Besar(Th) C Curcuma longa Herb Zingiberaceae   Zingiberales Rhizome Cough Eaten orally or by making its soup. 20 Bethi(N)/ Bethu(Th) C Chenopodium album Herb Chenopodiaceae Caryophyllales Leaf Joint pain and cough Eaten in vegetables. International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences http://ijpbs.org/ 5
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