The Colonial Society

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The Colonial Society. The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening. Calvinism and the Puritans. John Calvin- Theologian Predestination Key Beliefs Men are ALL sinners Only a few are Saved. Success is a sign of Grace. Hard work is a virtue Righteous behavior is a Calvinist virtue
The Colonial SocietyThe Enlightenment and the Great AwakeningCalvinism and the Puritans
  • John Calvin- Theologian
  • Predestination
  • Key Beliefs
  • Men are ALL sinners
  • Only a few are Saved
  • Success is a sign of Grace
  • Hard work is a virtue
  • Righteous behavior is a Calvinist virtue
  • The “saved” are “living saints”
  • The “Elect”
  • You can never be sure you are Saved.
  • British Calvinism
  • The Separatists
  • Church of England is corrupt
  • Want separation from it
  • Intolerant of other religions.
  • May Flower Pilgrims
  • Plymouth Colony 1620
  • Believe what you want but not here
  • Colony Struggled
  • Puritans
  • Want to “purify” the Church of England
  • Establish Massachusetts Bay Colony 1630
  • Perfect society of a “Living Saint”
  • A “Theocracy.” John Winthrope
  • Religious conformity enforced by law
  • The Godly Commonwealth
  • Had a “Covenant” with God
  • Lasting impact of the Puritans
  • The Work Ethic
  • Material success a sign of virtue
  • Strict public morality
  • Intolerance
  • The Town meeting
  • Public Education
  • Harvard College 1636
  • Value of Contracts
  • Belief in National Mission
  • Idea of a “Calling”
  • Superiority
  • Reaction to Puritans
  • Religious Liberty
  • “Separation of Church and State”
  • Roger Williams
  • Anne Hutchinson
  • The First Amendment to the Constitution 1791
  • The Protestant Work Ethic
  • Americans work hard.
  • The basis of our success…
  • Utopian Perfection
  • Puritans want to build a perfect society
  • This is a theme in American History
  • Belief in Progress
  • Immigrants from Europe
  • Brought European customs and traditions
  • But soon a new culture emerged: the American Colonial culture.
  • Shaped by the New Environment
  • Colonial Society
  • Rapid population growth from
  • Immigration
  • Amazing birth rate
  • By 1776 3 million American colonials
  • 2/3rd born in the New World
  • Area of Settlement
  • Mostly along the Atlantic seaboard
  • Most Lived as farmers
  • Line of exploration had reached Kentucky
  • The Western Frontier
  • Social Classes
  • By 1775 distance classes had emerged
  • Top class: Plantation owners, and wealthy merchants
  • Next: Small farmers, craftsmen and shopkeepers
  • Bottom: Indentured servants and slaves
  • Social Mobility
  • The ability to move from one class to the next
  • Class structure in Europe was Rigid
  • Colonial American it was easy to rise
  • Living Conditions
  • Family was the focal point.
  • Strict discipline
  • Life expectancy 40 in the South, 70 in New England
  • Middle Class produced own clothes and homes
  • Upper class imported clothes
  • Recreation
  • Arts and Literature
  • Life was hard
  • Little time for arts
  • Noted American artists:
  • Charles Peale
  • John S. Copley
  • Gilbert Stuart
  • Charles PealeJohn S. CopleyGilbert StuartThe Enlightenment
  • Begins in England with Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica 1687
  • Mechanical view of the universe, governed by Natural Law.
  • Reason and the Scientific Method to find the truth.
  • Rationalism
  • In America Ben Franklin, James Madison, and Thomas Jefferson, son of the Enlightenment
  • Deism: The popular religion
  • God as master clock maker
  • Progress is possible.
  • John Locke
  • “Social Contract”
  • “Treatise on Civil Government”
  • Natural Rights vs. Divine right of Kings
  • The Right of Revolution
  • Man is a product of his environment
  • Enlightenment in Europe
  • American intellectuals influence by Voltaire
  • Ben Franklin
  • Inventor
  • Scientist
  • Statesman
  • Publisher
  • Thinker
  • Philosopher
  • Rationalism undercuts Calvinist emotion.
  • Religion in Colonial America
  • As religious diversity increases so does religious tolerance
  • Congregationalist church becomes the established church in New England
  • Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware practice separation of church and state
  • The South establishes the Anglican Church
  • The Great Awakening
  • By 1730s and 40s religion had lost its passion
  • Congregational church adopts the half way covenant
  • Church membership declines
  • Ministers preach a softer religion influence by the Enlightenment
  • New Light Ministers
  • Jonathan Edwards Northampton, Mass
  • “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
  • 1734 George Whitefield
  • Returns Emotion to religion
  • New Light Colleges
  • Dartmouth
  • Rutgers
  • Princeton
  • Colonial Education
  • Massachusetts Act of 1647
  • Towns with 50 families must establish a school
  • Towns with 100 families must set up Latin Grammar School
  • First Colleges:
  • Harvard
  • William
  • Mary
  • Yale
  • Salem Witch Trials 1692
  • 20 people executed
  • Starts: Salem girls, a slave and two women are charged with witchcraft
  • Then charged anyone they disliked
  • 150 are charged. Some confess
  • Anyone who protested was accused
  • Mercantilism
  • Economic Theory
  • Colonies exist to benefit the “Mother Country”
  • Trade is controlled
  • Must use British merchant ships
  • Must ship goods to England first
  • Cannot trade outside of the empire
  • More…
  • Colonies supply raw materials
  • Become markets for manufactured goods.
  • Navigation Act passed by parliament
  • But not enforced
  • Policy of Salutary Neglect
  • THAT IS IT!Done…finished…complete….end.…through…
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