The identification of balance weights in pre-literate Bronze Age Europe: Typology, chronology, distribution and metrology

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In this chapter we address the archaeological evidence for balance weights in pre-literate Bronze Age Europe (ca. 2300-800 BC, with the exception of the Aegean), as a proxy for the adoption of weight-based trade. The study is introduced by a
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   Weights and Marketplaces rom the Bronze Age to the Early Modern Period. Proceedings o wo Workshops Funded by the European Research Council (ERC) Edited by Lorenz Rahmstor and Edward Stratord   Weight & Value Edited by Lorenz Rahmstor Seminar ür Ur- und Frühgeschichte Georg-August-Universität Göttingen Volume 1Publications o the ERC-2014-CoG: WEIGHANDVALUE: Weight Metrology and its Economic and Social Impact on Bronze Age Europe, West and South AsiaGöttingen2019   Weights and Marketplaces rom the Bronze Age to the Early Modern Period Edited by Lorenz Rahmstor and Edward Stratord with contributions romEnrico Ascalone, Grégory Chambon, Jessica Dijkman, Gary M. Feinman, William B. Hafford, Hans Peter Hahn, Edward M. Harris, Kenneth Hirth, Tomas Höltken, Fang Hui, Nicola Ialongo, Jane Kershaw, Stephen A. Kowalewski, Lionel Marti, Anna Michailidou, Juan Carlos Moreno García, Linda M. Nicholas, Adelheid Otto, Karl M. Petruso, Luca Peyronel, Lorenz Rahmstor, Felix Rösch, Edward Stratord, David A. Warburton, Elsbeth M. van der Wilt Proceedings o wo Workshops Funded by the European Research Council (ERC) WACHHOLZ VERLAG KIEL/HAMBURG – MURMANN PUBLISHERS  Tis publication was unded by the European Research Council [Grant no. 648055]Te present volume has been peer-reviewed. We are very grateul to the 21 colleagues who acted as peer-reviewers or the contributions in this volume.Redaktion: Heinz-Peter KochISBN 978-3-529-03540-1© 2019 by Seminar ür Ur- und Frühgeschichte der Universität GöttingenCover:Front cover (top let): Reconstruction o the scale rom Bordjoš, Banat, Serbia, ca. 1200 BC (modiied ater Medović 1995, ig. 5, c. p. 124).Front cover (top right): Spool-shaped balance weights with markings rom iryns, Argolid, Greece, mid and later third millennium BC. Courtesy o Lorenz Rahmstor.Front cover (bottom let): A cubo-octahedral weight rom Cttam, East Yorkshire, England, ca. 9th century AD. Courtesy o Jane Kershaw.Front cover (bottom right): A stone ˊ amulet ˋ  rom epe Gawra, northern Iraq, ca. mid ith millennium BC (Speiser 1935, pl. XLIIIb, c. p. 30).Back cover (top): Detail o the marketscene in the tomb-chapel o Nianchkhnum and Chnumhotep, Saqqara, Egypt, ca. 25th century BC (Moussa/Altenmüller 1977, ig. 10, c. p. 182).Back cover (bottom): Reconstruction drawing o the waterront with market in Schleswig, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, ca. 1100 AD. Courtesy o Felix Rösch.Alle Rechte, auch die des gesamten Nachdrucks, der photomechanischen Wiedergabe und der Übersetzung vorbehalten Wachholtz Verlag Kiel/Hamburg – Murmann Publishers 2019 Gedruckt au säurereiem, chlorrei gebleichtem Papier DOI 10.23797/9783529035401  Preace by the editor o the series Te Seminar ür Ur- und Frühgeschichte (Insti-tute or Prehistory and Early Historical Archaeolo-gy) at the Georg-August-University o Göttingen has been publishing archaeological research or over more than hal a century. Within the „Göttin-ger Schrifen zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte“ mono-graph series, 35 volumes – mostly PhD and Habi-litation theses – have appeared since 1961, srcinal archaeological data are presented and analysed in detail. Te more recent „Göttinger Forschungen zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte“ (three volumes so ar), appeals also to a wider public and presents specific research areas o the Institute. „Neue Aus-grabungen und Forschungen in Niedersachsen“, is a series designed to bring smaller studies such as MA theses rom the region o Lower Saxony to publi-cation. Within the monograph series „Studien zur nordeuropäischen Bronzezeit“, which is unded by the Academy o Sciences and Literature in Mainz, the results o a research project directed by my pre-decessor, Karl-Heinz Willroth, are presented. Now, a new series „Weight & Value“ – o which this is the first volume – sets a new and additional ocus on weights, scales and weight regulated arteacts in prehistoric and early historical archaeology and the relevance o these objects or the reconstruc-tion o ancient concepts o material value. Te title  was inspired by two books by Anna Michailidou  with the same title. First and oremost, the results o the ERC-2014-CoG ‚WEIGHANDVALUE:  Weight metrology and its economic and social im- pact on Bronze Age Europe, West and South Asia‘ [Grant no. 648055] will be presented in the new series. However, as no series exists so ar or the  publication o detailed studies on early metrology and the material evidence, we hoped to establish this series or publications even afer the ERC pro- ject has come to an end. Tere is a substantial need or a such a publication series dealing with issues o „weight and value“ or the whole time-span rom the Chalcolithic period and Bronze Age to the Me-dieval and early modern period. o attract an inter-national author- and readership, the peer-reviewed series will be published in English (Current guide-lines or submission can be ound at the back o this  volume).Tis first volume presents two workshops in a series o workshops unded by the ERC-2014-CoG ‚WEIGHANDVALUE‘. Te workshop „Weights and their identification. Methodological challenges in the study o ancient weights and me-trological systems“ was hosted at the Institut ür Vorderasiatische Archäologie (Institute or Near Eastern Archaeology) at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, which took place on 25-26  June 2016. I would like to thank Adelheid Otto and her team or their great hospitality in Munich. Most o the papers presented at this workshop are  published in the first part o this book with the  very welcome addition o Karl Petruso’s paper who unortunately was unable to attend. Te workshop „Weights and marketplaces. Te phenomenolo-gy o places o exchange within a diachronic and multi-cultural perspective“ took place over a year later at the Seminar ür Ur- und Frühgeschichte in Göttingen on October 19-21 2017. Not only nearly all participants submitted papers or the procee-dings vol ume, but with Juan Carlos Moreno García, Felix Rösch, Gary M. Feinman, Fang Hui and Linda M. Nicholas, urther renowned specialists, contri-buted to the theme o the workshop in the present  volume, though they could not attend the event itsel. I would like to thank all authors or their con-tributions and my co-editor Edward Stratord or his support. Editing and layout lay in the hands o Heinz-Peter Koch with the help o Sandra Busch-Hellwig. Te printing and the open access o this  publication has been financed by the ERC Grant.Göttingen, July 2019 Lorenz Rahmstor 
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