The Physical Geography of Russia

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The Physical Geography of Russia. Chapter 14. The Land. A Vast and Varied Land. World’s largest country 6,200 miles 11 times zones 9 mountain ranges 13 seas. Mountains and Plateaus. Ural Mountains – separate European Russia from Asian Russia
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The Physical Geography of RussiaChapter 14The LandA Vast and Varied Land
  • World’s largest country
  • 6,200 miles
  • 11 times zones
  • 9 mountain ranges
  • 13 seas
  • Mountains and Plateaus
  • Ural Mountains – separate European Russia from Asian Russia
  • Small mountains but with iron ore, oil, natural gas, etc.
  • Caucasus Mountains – Southwest, Mount Elbrus 18,510 feet
  • Central Siberian Plateau
  • Kanchatka Peninsula – 100 volcanoes (23 active), as low as
  • -90 degreesPlains
  • North European Plain – poorly drained, so many swamps and lakes
  • South portion has rich black soil (chernozem) which supports wheat, rye, oats
  • 75% of population live here
  • West Siberian Plain – one of worlds largest flat areas
  • Many swamps and marshes
  • Coasts, Seas, and Lakes
  • Longest coastline in the world (23,000 miles)
  • Not many seaports b/c of freezing
  • Warm air along Black Sea – fishing thrives there
  • Caspian Sea – largest inland body of water in world (actually a lake)
  • Lake Baikal – 400 miles long , deepest freshwater lake in world
  • Hold 20% of world’s freshwater!!!!
  • Rivers
  • Long rivers, and many provide electric power
  • Most rivers are in Siberia, so European Russians often face water shortages
  • The Volgar River – connect Moscow and Caspian Sea. Frozen half year, but provides hydroelectric power
  • Becoming polluted
  • Siberian Rivers – rivers sources melt before mouths causing flooding
  • Natural Resources
  • Minerals and Energy –
  • Mineral fuels
  • 16% of world’s coal reserve
  • Most DRY natural gas in world
  • Nickel, aluminum, gemstones, sulfur, tungsten
  • Soil and Forest
  • 10% of land can have agriculture
  • Black Earth Belt
  • 1/5 of world’s forests, but shrinking faster than amazon
  • Russia’s fishing industry
  • HUGE
  • Sturgeon being illegally hunted for caviar
  • Climate and VegetationSection 2Russia’s climates and Vegetation
  • Long, cold winters and short, cool summers
  • Eastern Siberia is coldest
  • High-latitude climates –
  • -30 to 64 degrees, little rain
  • Tundra – above arctic circle and stays dark, 10% of Russia
  • Subarctic – most of Russia,
  • Taiga – forest belt, covers 2/5 of European Russian into Siberia (size of US)
  • Living in Cold Climate
  • Heating
  • Specials metals
  • Water supply
  • Mid-latitude climates – most people live here
  • Humid Continental – 9-21 in Jan. 56-75 in July
  • Most of European Russia
  • Descent growing
  • War and Winter
  • Napoleon in 1812 and Germans in WWII
  • Steppe – located between Black and Caspian Seas
  • Slightly warmer, and winters are not nearly as harsh
  • The Cultural Geography of RussiaChapter 15Population PatternsSection1Russia’s Ethnic Diversity
  • Ethnic Groups – share common ancestry, language, religion, customs, etc.
  • Ethnic Regions –
  • Nationalities
  • 1991 – 32 ethnic groups have own republics or administrative territories within Russia
  • The Slavs –
  • Ethnic Russians including Poles, Serbs, Ukrainians, etc.
  • Dominate politics and culture
  • Practice Eastern Orthodoxy
  • Mostly speak Russian
  • Turkic Peoples
  • Second largest ethnic group
  • Around Caucasus Area and Volga area
  • Mostly Muslim, but considered Trukic by language
  • Tatars is biggest groups of Turks
  • 1994 – Russia gave Tatarstan limited sovereignty (self-rule)
  • Caucasian People
  • Near Caucasus region of southeastern Russia
  • Mostly Muslim
  • Speak Russian but with different dialect
  • Demand self-rule
  • Population Density and Distribution
  • Population and the Environment
  • 6th largest population
  • Near 150 mill people. 22 people per square mile
  • 75% live between Belarus and Ukraine and Ural Mountains (120 per sq. mile)
  • Moscow is the major industrial city
  • Population trends
  • During Soviet Era, many moved to non-Russian republics
  • After 1991, begin to return
  • Life expectancy has declined because of lack of health care
  • History and Government Section 2Early Peoples and States
  • History begins around 600AD
  • Slavs settled in North European Plain
  • Divided
  • West Slaves became the Poles, Czechs, and Slavaks
  • South Slavs were Bulgarians, Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes
  • East Slavs were Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians
  • KievanRus
  • 800 AD, Scandinavian warriors called the Varangianas cam and adopted language and customs.
  • Built city-states known as KievanRus
  • Popular trading routes
  • 1200s, Mongol invaders from Central Asia took over and rules 200 years
  • The Rise of Russia
  • When the Mongols overran Keiv, many Slavs fled to Moskva River (Moscow) with trade routes and good farming
  • Muscovy kept peace with Mongols, but the princes became powerful and began refusing to pay Mongols and drive them out.
  • Prince IVAN III (the Great) gathered the lands and created Russia
  • 1533, Ivan IV became first czar (supreme ruler) and became known as Ivan the Terrible.
  • Romanov dynasty took over in 1613, and by then, peasants were serfs, a virtually enslaved workforces bound to the land and under the control of the nobility.Romanov Czars
  • Fell behind in science and technology, but Peter the Great came to modernize (1600s)
  • Russia majorily expanded including territory and trade
  • St. Petersburg was capital
  • 1700s – Catherine the Great, adapted European ways (spoke French)
  • But this put a divide between nobility and peasants.
  • The Russian Revolution
  • 1800s – reform needed, government tyrannical, peasants hurting
  • Czar Alexander II freed surfs…but not well thoughtout
  • Russification – speak Russian and be Eastern Orthodox
  • Socialism – a belief that calls for greater economic quality in society. Spurred by Karl Marx
  • Believed everyone should be equal and receive equal wealth…thought it would end the power of the wealthy
  • By 1900s, rioting…going against Czar Nicholas II
  • The Soviet Era
  • 1917, representative government, but didn’t have much control
  • Bolsheviks seized control and implemented Communism.
  • Communism – a philosophy based on Karl Marx’s ideas that called for the violent overthrow of government and the creation of a new society led by workers.
  • Pulled out of WWI, but took control of everything in land
  • Civil War
  • The Soviet Union
  • Bolsheviks won the civil war. Now known as Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
  • Moscow now capital
  • Lenin dies, Stalin takes over. Makes USSR major industrial giant
  • People died by hunger and labor camps
  • Killed all who threatened him and his power
  • A Superpower
  • WWII, fighting Germany. 27 mill Russians die
  • Soviet Union controlled much of Eastern Europe (1945)
  • Satellites countries – East Germany, Poland, Hungary, etc.
  • Next 4 decades, Cold War between USSR and US – fight between Communism and Capitalism
  • The Soviet Breakup
  • 1800s, Communism failing
  • 1985 – Mikhail Gorbachev wanted Communist reform – created perestroika (economic reconstruction) and Glasnost (political openness)
  • Soviet republics begin to declare independence
  • Boris Yeltsin (first democratically elected president)m tried to stop continued uprising of communism
  • A New Russia
  • Yeltsin assumed leadership
  • Bad economy
  • Ethnic conflicts
  • Moving from command economy o market economy
  • Cultures and Lifestyles Chapter 15 section 3Religion in Russia
  • Eastern Orthodox Church vital to Russia before Communism
  • Communism promoted atheism
  • Relaxed religious laws…but now becoming more strict again.
  • Christianity in Russia
  • 988, Prince Vladimir adopted Eastern Orthodox Christianity
  • By 1453, simply Orthodox Christianity
  • Hurt during Communism but making comeback
  • Churches being fixed
  • Has a patriarch and icons
  • Islam
  • Southern Regions of Russia
  • Mostly Sunni sect, such as most Arab countries
  • Judaism
  • Very persecuted
  • Could hardly have land
  • Pogroms – organized persecution and massacres
  • During Communism, migrated to Israel or US
  • Buddhism
  • Near the Caspian Sea and near Lake Baikal
  • ½ Million Buddhists
  • Education
  • 100% literacy rate in urban areas
  • Soviet emphasis on free but mandatory eduction
  • Favored military, science and engineering study verse language, history, and literature.
  • Intelligentsia – educators, writers, artists.
  • Doctors, teachers, etc are little paid
  • Education changed after Communism
  • Students can choose their type of school
  • Schools are overcrowded and in disrepair
  • Health Care
  • Disease and lifestyle helped lower life expectancy
  • Births are dangerous and many diseases
  • Healthcare is horrible. Doctors quit to become taxi drivers!
  • The Arts
  • Love art, music, and writing
  • Dangerous to express yourself
  • 1600s, found inspiration in religion
  • IlyaRepinWassily KandinskyCulture and the Soviets
  • Believed artists should glorify the achievements of Communism
  • Socialist Realism
  • Alexander Solzhenitsyn banished to labor camps and sent from country
  • The Gulag Archipelago
  • Post Soviet Art
  • More freedom
  • Life and Leisure
  • Many hardships and shortages.
  • But leisure time allowed
  • Tennis, track and field, ice hockey
  • Holidays
  • Christmas finally reinstated for the first time since 1918
  • Russia Today Chapter 16Living in Russia
  • The Soviet Command Economy
  • Command Economy – central authority makes key economic decisions. Control banks, factories, farms, mines, transportation
  • Emphasized heavy industry – became a world power, but couldn’t get consumer goods
  • Black Market
  • SU did NOT turn focus to technology, so economy stagnated
  • The Market Economy
  • Gorbachev was moving command economy to market economy – businesses are privately owned
  • Supply and Demand
  • Privatization
  • A change to private ownership
  • This didn’t help the everyday man
  • Crime damaged the economy
  • Agriculture and Industry
  • Kolkhozes – small farms worked by farmers who shared in the farm’s production and profits
  • Sovkhozes – large farms run more like factories
  • Both of these were run by government and had unmotivated workers
  • Trying to make it run by the people
  • Aerospace industry and military-industrial system beginning to be privately owned.
  • Petroleum is most important industry, and crude oil is highest producer in world
  • Wood and fishing
  • Transportation and communication
  • Roads in disrepair, Harsh winters block roads
  • Need railways and waterways
  • Trans-Siberian Railroad
  • Most people don’t own cars but rely on public transportation, but need improvement
  • Transporting energy
  • Pipelines!
  • Mass Communication
  • Government in control of all communication , but changed since the fall
  • Phone and internet becoming popular
  • Global Interdependence
  • Trade: lumber, metals, chemicals
  • Receive consumer goods, medicines, meat, and sugar
  • Energy is it’s main item of international trade.
  • International Relations:
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