The Web-Based Learning Environment: A Comparative Study between the Constructivist and Content-Based Approaches

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The Web-Based Learning Environment: A Comparative Study between the Constructivist and Content-Based Approaches
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  /'   lplV ヲ eJ-   /E€c セ ィセセ MNjNNN  v cOᄋセ ャャオ Q セ pV1 7   .//.b./ t::: I / L   { セ   Cp /lIl L セ   I bavd lJJ q L  Yj \   vlly 0 A   - i セ ' Mn r, J   « ,  :) セ ヲ O-U? lI I p The Web-Based Learning Environment: A ComparativeStudy between the Constructivistand Content-Based Approaches PlivaneswaryMurugaiah.HanatiAlan.DianneSzalinaSamslIdin & RozhanMIdrlls   7 4 - School of DistanceEducationUni\ ersitiSainsMalaysia11800PenangMalaysia a1111'1l\'a  tllSI11,I11\. ahanati  dusm,nw. rozhan { lIsnl.ll1\ Abstract Tliis artiele reportson tl/eim'estigatiollilllotliedi/li:rcncesin students' perceptions lrlienthe\ ore suhiected to 111 difFerentil1.l'tl llction;i/ designs or the IJ eh-hased Learnillg ElIl'irolll1lents (IIBL£'I), one ulilisillg the Clll1.\'tructil'islafJfJl'Oach adapted fi'olllIhe illack and McCiinlock,\{odel i'nd theother utilsingIhe truditional contellt-I? {sed apfJroach. As elll'imged. IhecOl/tenf.·hased approach of tlie 13 lヲセ reail'ed signi/ic II1l/il\'ourahle responses in tallls o( the design or tlie course col7lel7ls.Holt'e\'I /',inlerllls or 'he conlellldeli er,',Ihere,l/iondel/ts Idt Ihal ,he t'Ollstructil'ist WilLE  l/ o\'idcdthe//lIt'ith//lorelIIewling/id learnillg IJ } )IJrtullitics througli .Ill' prO\'ision or leurning inclllltC.r/,oll-lil/t' collahoraliollulld the ( ',,iluhilitr IJ(I leoll-lilleresources. 1. Introduction Th.:cUlwnt 。 pedagogicalapproach tll karning is theconslt uctivistapproachIlhereinthekclrning is slUd.:nt-centrecLrequil lngstudents acti\L ゥ in theconstruction or knollkdge andth,,:assumingresponsibilit:lortheir Oil n karnin t [I] Thelearningoccurs ill thl: collaborativeell\ ironmentandtheteacheractsasafacilitator,Tileteacherdoes not deli\ l:rthecoursecontentsblltguidl:thestudents in theprocess or 、ゥウ」ッ| ・イセNゥョアオゥイセ and 。 TheuniqueI eaturesancattributes or the \-Veb  echnolog:. ョ。ュ・ャセ thepOllerfulinformationmanipulationtoolsandcOlllmunicationmeans.maketheconstructivIstapproach in WBLEsparticularlyappropriateandsuitable,Thecollaboration.involvingastudent-facilitatorandstudents-peerscan be conductedviathesynchronouschatorasynchronousforumboard,Thelearningresourcesrequired 「セ interpretationsandmultiplemanifestationscan be supported by linkstoexternalWebresources.Despitetheimpol1ance or theWBLEutilisinQtheconstructivistapproach in thl: deliver\ot coursematerials ・ in openand 、ゥウエセョ」NZ learning.thelearningprocesses or theconstructivistWBLErelativetotheconlentbasedWBLE is not asyetfullyunderstood.Thepresentstudy,therefore,seekstoexploretherelativedifferencesbetll eenthet\IOapproaches. 2.0 Methodology 1 110 W8LFs I\ (:re speciall: ャォウゥァョセ、 ilnd de\eloped.ThelirstWIH.F\Iasthecontent·basedWBLEandthesecond lias thl: constructivistWBLE, 2.1.1 Thecontent-based WBLE Thl:designapproachol the cエ|ョャcョエM「。セ・、 \ BI t is adapted li'Olll th.: Dic -- 8: c i\lodel  2 Themodelconsists or ゥョエイッ、オ」エエIイセ inl nrmation.lessonobjectives.contentdeli\ ・ andpro\ision or examples. Thl: learningprocess in thl: contentbasedWRI.E is a ッ didactic knOll kdgl:transmissionrromthecontentstothestudents.Nocollaborationor ャセャ ゥ I it llion is ill\oll ed in thisprocess. It involvesslulk ntsacceptingandIllemorisingthe I'acts gi\en in theWei)pagesandrecilliingthenl<lterialslearned\\henrl:quired.  2.1.2 The constructivir;t WIILE'l'lrc clesign of the corrstructivist \\'eb-based leanring is adaptecl ti',trn the lnterpretation f'onstruction Design MoJel proposed bv Black .t McClintock til 'fl e nrodel consists of construction. interpretation corrstluction. contextualisation. co_s.ritive apprc'nticeship, collaboration and nr.rltiple nianil'estations. Fronr a total of 460 strrdents enrolled in this course. 8 | r.vele randornl'' selected tbr the studr'.'l h* u'cre llrst ernoserl to the corrtent-basedItems ( ontcnts rrcrc casilr trrrrl ( ()nlcnl) rictc cir.ilr tirllor, ( ()ntcnts uclc clcarli clcliC'ontcnts rclatcd to cicrrtl WBLE tbr a periocl of | ',: hours arrd subsc'querrth to the corrstructivist \\'Bt-ti fbr tlrc ne \t I I/. hours. At the e nd of' the -l-hour treatnrent. a questionnaire .,ras adrninistered to the students. 'flre qucstionnairc corrsisted ol'10 itenrs under the categories of course conteltts. teaching and learning processc5 arrcl efl-ectiverress. Only iterns that slrorvc.d significant diftlr'cnces betueen thc tuo nreans were reported. l alrlc L couf5c contcnts Content-based lear n ing Constructivist-based learn ing'f -testSig' N mean std N me,ln std :rst0od til -'t.() I 2 0.719 8l 2.-/7i0 8()(r l ( )()7 t). (l+ll ccl ttl 2.9-.r t{ 0 69-5 ttI 2.679 (\.7 r' I a li(r (, 017 \ cfcd ul -1.{)tx) 0.(r70 8l 2.69 I ().75l l. u60 (x)-i r crocticnccs 802.812 0.65 7 ti0 Ott 7 () 7l-5 t.871 0.(r05 3.0 Results and discussion The contparatir c analy sis bc-t'ni een tlie content-based WBI-E ;rnd the collstfucti\"ist Wtlt.E on iterls related to tlte course contents is cicpicted in Table | . The instructionalconflguratir'rrr of the tr':b-based content-[rased lcarnirrg (CIIL) focus:d on the directed. incliviclualisc'cl instluctiorr on inlbrrrration that uas u'ell structuled rvitlr the clesign of tlre lcarning acti\ ities rarrting fl'orn lou level to pltrgrcssirclr rnole cornplcr actir,itic:. [)rrc to thc Cl]t. inst ructional crrrrliSLrlation. it uas cr[.rectccl tlrut higl rrrcan ralucs uoulci br' obtainccl orr itr'rns rclaterl to thc corrrsc conlclrts on [lrc ('[][- approach as conrparcd ri itlr tlrc' lrroblcrtr-baseri lcalning (l)llt-) approach arrd thcsc arc irrclicatc'rl irr 'l-ablc l. Ihele riere significant dift'ererrces r,n ilerrs rclatcd to tlre parts ol'tlle contelrts tlrat ucre irrtcrcstirrg. cirsilr Lrrrclclstoocl. sirnple to tbllori iincl dclivere'd clcar'lr. all these tavourirtg the' CIll- approach. Ilorievcr. as '\pected. cn itcrls rclate'd to dailr crpc'ricnccs. thc c()nstnrJtivist \ 'tlt-l: apploach lcgistered lrigher rleans rr ith. greater significantclit'f'ercncc's cornpared to thc- contcnt-baseri \\'llt.t: approach."l'able 2 shous tlre contparati\ - arraltsis of the rneans of the constructi\ ist WBLE appfoach relative to the contcnt-Lrasecl \.\'ULF. approach on itenrs relatecl to thc coLrrse contr'ltt clelirerr. Out ot' a total ol' 2l itcnts. 8 iterns registered sienillcant diflbrgrccs u ith all rtf tlrenr lhlourins thc cortstructivist \\'Ul.L approaclr. -fhe rcsporrdents correctlr' 1tc'rceir c'ci that irr tlrc constructivist WIlt-tr apprr.rach. the dcliVe-11 ol' tlre course contcnts allouetl thern to appl-r thcrteu lv constructetl knorr lcrlsc. irr thc ploblcrrrs associated * itlr clailr arrd pr'1c1lcnl situatitltrs. 'ilrc aspect of'collaboration plarrr.l a r ilal lolc rrr tlre constrtrcti<-rn ot' krrorr Itcl gc. ancl trrrderstarrci i rr g ancl tlris rr as nraclc 1'lossiblc tltrotrglt tlrc ltrocc:: ol' articulalion. rrcsotiatiorr uncl rr'llcction trrride as. Ihc cornparatirc artalrsis ot'thc t\\r) upl]t()itchcs in tcnrs ol' tlrc lcarrrirrg et'fectir crrcss a\perccirc'cl br thc studcnts i: sltou rr in I ablc l.'llrc stucjcnts pclceirctl that tlrc ctlrrstructir.ist \\'tlt.t: uas ct-tcctirc. tlrc lcarnirrrt uas crr.lorable and tlrc approaclr crrablcrl tlrcnr to cstablislr u nrind rnap connccting thc irrrportant conccpts tlult \\crc being Iearncrl. l hc 1'rror ision ol' collaboration. lcarnirrg in cr)nt '\t arrcl thc trtilisation of thc lirll potcntial ol'tlre \\'cb rrratle the constructir ist \\'lll.l: ct'ti'ctir e arrd cnjo-rablc' conrparccl to thc traclitional colttcnt-basc(l \\/tll.tr.  Itenrs I t'orrtlihLrlccllc:rnr irr r: I hrtl thc llcrihiiitr to problcrns Tatrlc'2. Collttrlaralive allalvsis lrclrveen the conterrt-basr'd appl'oaclr and the conslructivist-trased leartring in lcrrns ol-teaclrilrg atrtl lcarrrins proccsscs Content-bascd lea rn ingConstructivist- based learninsT-test Sig' N nleanstd N meanstd apph lhc rrcrr It( ) 2.9(r2 0.6()l 80:1.1l20.58tt 2.1t99 0.(x)-i rclatccl to tlailr 80 l.617 0(rlI u() 1.0|20 (r(r5 -1.()19().(xx)rlr c rcul dailr l{() 2.ll5() ().67(r tt()1.0-17 0.6{t-j -2.11l ().0 I ti Itirrkins in rnrxo 1.8|2 0 (r7(r tt( ) 1 l(x) 0 6Jll ()Jl 0 ()0j ilt thc lcarning lJ() 2.762 0.5-i6 lJ () 1..150 0.6-jlt -5.96 | ().(xx ) lt\ (l\\n atls\\ct's li () 2.7 3'7 ().5S9 ti0 1.e75 0. 72 ti -1.i5 | o.ol I ltl\(l\\ ll Iil {x )(} 0 6ll 13 I 1.196 {).6(X) l | 0-0 (x)l lgs ilr Irr lcitrrt ttl l. ()l l () 6.1 | rll l.l()8 () 5{t.r ()+l 0.(x).1 I'ablc i. fsrttparalite t'rl'lrttallsis lrelrt'eett tlte content-t'rascd lcarnin-s and the conslfucti\ist-based lc.arnilrg in lerrns o1- etl'ect ir eness. Content-based learn ins (lon stru ctiv ist- basedlearn i ng T-testsis. Nmea n std \i menn strl til 2.963 0.(r2 | til 3 3700.55 7 -.1.859().()(x) 8l 2.8'76 ()._s78 til t'72 0.61t-s -2.96 | (). { x,-l tc rclationships nalcrills L'arncd 8l 2..925 o.666 8l -1..3-s8 0.7Il l. -5 72 ().(xx) 4.0 Summary This stud1, elucidated th<' learning processes of the constructivist WBLE in cornparison to those of the content-based .'VBLE. The findingsrevealed that the constructivist approach rvas perceived to be beneficial to the students, providing thern rvith the learrririg activities that rlere engaging and stirrrulating and promoting individual perspectives tou'ards the undefstanding of the learring n.laterials. Overall.students felts that the learning processes nrade avtrilablc b1' the consr ructivist WBEL was enriching. el fective and err.joy,able. 5.0 References Il Jonassen. D.l-1. "The constructivist learning enr ironnrent on the Wetr: engaging students in nreaningful learning". Faper preserrted at the Education T'echnologl' Cont-erence and Erhibition. 9-ll Fc'bruary 1999. SUNTEC City. Singapore. [2] Dick. W. and Carey'. L. Tltc S-t'stcmuric' Desigtt of'ltt.ttruction. Nerv York: Harper Collins Publish ing. I 996. [3] Black. J.B. and McClintock. R.O. ..f rr I n t e r p r e I a t i ct tt C ons I r u c I i o tt A p pr o u c' lt t o Construc'tit'ist Desigtt.ln B. Wilson (Ed.).Constructil ist Learning Environrnent.Englewood Cliff. NJ. : Educational Technology' Publication. 1996. pp 2-5-32. l\'ll rhilitl to cstablish th bcl$ccn thc conccpls ol'thc n irtcrcrtsetl
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