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  Tourism Marketing in Developing countries: a study of Bangladesh Contact Address: S M Nazrul Islam, PG Researcher, Hospitality and Tourism Manaement, !ni ersity o# Strathclyde, Glaso$ %mail: smnazrul&islam'starth&ac&u(  Tourism has become a very important and dynamic sector both in the world economyand particular in the developing countries. Its growth affects not only the activitiesdirectly linked to tourism but also other sectors. Tourism is already an importantsector in some developing countries and will become so for others. Developingcountries have been fast growing in tourism industry terms in the world over the lastdecade. Tourism is one of the most important sectors in a large number of developingcountries. Increases in economic growth, disposable income and leisure time, politicalstability, and aggressive tourism campaigns, among others factors, have fuelled thesignificant growth of tourism. Developing countries have some commoncharacteristics, such as extreme poverty and widespread conflict (including civil war and ethnic clashes), extensive political corruption, lack of political and social stability,human resource weakness (human assets index, nutrition, health, education and adultliteracy), and economic vulnerability. angladesh is a developing country in !sia,holding high potentiality for tourism. angladesh ar#atan $orporation ( $) playsan important role for the development of tourism. %or a long time, angladesh has been an attractive destination for tourists. ut at present, its position is not significantin terms of the international tourism market. The overall ob#ective of this research isto identify the issues and challenges in tourism marketing facing angladesh.&ey wards' tourism, developing county, marketing, and case study 1. Introduction The role of international tourism in generating economic benefits has long beenrecognised in many developing countries (enkins, **+ T-, **). The publicsector may have been reluctant in the past to contribute towards tourism development, but the situation has changed and, over the years, governments/ perspectives ontourism have not only evolved to include wider participation, but have also widenedfrom the narrow focus on economic benefits to encompass environmental and societalconcerns. 0verything seems to suggest that developing countries look upon tourism  consumption as manna from heaven that can provide a solution to all their foreignexchange difficulties (0rbes, *12' p3). This description of tourism as 4manna fromhaven/ has gained some support, in part because tourism is a highly visible activity.!lthough tourism development results in the provision of facilities and services, thereare, however, instances when these facilities are not accessible to local residents, particularly if tourism development involves the creation of tourism enclaves. In thelast two decades in particular tourism has developed, especially in developingcountries by their integrated tourism planning (uhalis, ***+ utler, 5665+ 7anhove,5668). The specific research ob#ectives of this study are'.To identify development trends in angladesh tourism5.To evaluate the effectiveness of tourism marketing angladesh2.To analyse issues in tourism marketing in angladesh+ and.To identify potential strategies that can contribute to increasing the competitiveness of angladesh tourism.To conduct the research, a conceptual framework from a literature review was created and implemented using of a particular research methodology and methods. 2.Definition, concept, meaning, and characteristics of developing countries The terms 4the third world/, 4underdeveloped countr ies/, 4developing countries/,4poor countries/, the 9outh/ and 4less3developed countrie s (:D$/s)/ are mostly usedinterchangeably (Tosun and enkins, **;). <owever, it is not an easy task to define precisely what is meant by these terms as =c>ueen (5665). uchanan (*1, p.56,?uoting @ew :eft review, *A2, p. ) describes 4the developing country is a universeof radical scarcity. Defining and determining every dimension of men/s relationship toeach otherB the inade?uacy means of livelihood i s the first and distinguishing truthof this area/. In order to give a more clear meaning of the term, it is worth ?uotingTodaro (5666) at some length' The 2 !frican, !sian and :atin !merican member 5  countries of the Cnited @ations often collectively refer to themselves as the 4Third orld/ or 4developing countries/.Developing $ountries, third orld countries, industrialising countries,underdeveloped countries, and less developed countries are countries which,according to the Cnited @ations exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomicdevelopment, with the lowest human development ratings of all countries in theworld. The orld ank (566*) classified developing countries as those having per capita income of less C9 5566. !nother concept of developing is that they have ahigh level of illiteracy+ !fghanistan, akistan, angladesh, India, and 9udan aretypical examples.!ccording to the Cnited @ations (566*), 56 countries are described as developingcountries, and they comprise less than 56E of the world/s total F@ . earce (**)suggests that all those nations out side of 0urope, @orth !merica, apan and !ustraliahave to be considered as developing countries. =ost developing countries are locatedin 9ub39aharan !frica, !sia, :atin !merica, acific and $aribbean regions of theworld. 9ome of these countries have fasted development rates. <owever, there arealso countries such as India, $hina, angladesh, @epal, and 0thiopia that are very poor. Thus the term 4developing countries/ is a ver y broad concept. Cnited @ationsreview in 566*, and defined by the C@ that developing countries as countries meetingtheir criteria, one of which was a three3year average estimate of gross national income(F@I) per capita of less than C9 *86. !ccording to the orld ank (566*) worldeconomies are classified economies based on F@I per capita which is calculated usingthe orld ank !tlas method. The groups are' low income, *28 or less+ lower middle income, *2A 3 2,168+ upper middle income, 2,16A 3 ,88, and highincome, ,8A or more (for countries list see the appendix 53I ). %or example, per capita income of developing countries in year 566136; according to the orld ank (), International =onetary %und (I=%) and $entral Intelligence !gency ($I!)report as in %ebruary, 566*, such as, akistan ,6;8 ()+ &enya C9D A;6 (I=%)+!fghanistan, C981 (I=%)+ 0thiopia C921 (I=%)+ India, 61; ($I!)+ @epalC95; (I=%)+ @igeria C96+ 9ri3:anka C956** (I=%)+ 7ietnam C9688+urma C95;1 ($I!)+ $ambodia C91A6 ($I!)+ <aiti C91*2, =ali C915 ($I!)+Gimbabwe C96+ and angladesh C9A*62  The least developed countries (:D$s) are a group of countries that have beenidentified by the Cnited @ations (566;) as Hleast developedH in terms of their lowgross national income (F@I), their weak human assets and their high degree of economic vulnerability. The term :east Developed $ountries (:D$s) describes theworlds poorest countries with following 2 criteria, such criteria are' i. :ow3income criterion'  based on a three3year average estimate of the gross national income (F@I) per capita (under 186 for inclusion, above *66 for graduation)+ ii. <uman resource weakness criterion' involving a composite human assets index (<!I) based on indicators of' (a) nutrition+ (b) health+ (c) education+ and (d) adult literacy+ and iii. 0conomic vulnerability criterion ' based on indicators of the instability of  agricultural production+ the instability of exports of goods and services+ the economicimportance of non3traditional activities (share of manufacturing and modern servicesin FD )+ merchandise export concentration+ and the handicap of economic smallness.Therefore, India, angladesh, and akistan have the common economic features of developing countries permit us to view them in a broadly similar framework. asedon common characteristics developing countries can be classified into six categories'i)low standard levels of living+ ii) low incomes, ine?uality, poor health, andinade?uate education+ iii) low levels of productivity+ iv) high rates of populationgrowth and dependency burdens, substantial dependence on agricultural productionand primary3products exports+ v) prevalence of imperfect markets and limitedinformation+ and vi) dependence and vulnerability in international relations (Todaro,5666+ orld ank, 566*)Immediately after liberation, the government of angladesh set up the angladesh ar#atan 9angstha (angladesh Tourism -rganisation), with a view to developing thetourist industry in the country (<asan, 5661). The organisation was restructured intoangladesh ar#atan $orporation ( $) in *12. The corporation drew up a five3year  plan within the framework of the first %ive3Jear lan (*1231;) for economic andsocial development of the country to provide essential facilities and to develop natural
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