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   Tourism geography    Chapter no.1   Tourism geography is that branch of science which deals with the study of travel and its impact on places. Tourism geography  is the study of  travel and tourism, as an industry and as a social and cultural activity. Tourism geography covers a wide range of interests including the environmental impact of tourism, the geographies of tourism and leisure economies, answering tourism industry and management concerns and the sociology of tourism and locations of tourism. Geography is fundamental to the study of tourism, because tourism is geographical in nature.   Tourism occurs in places, it involves movement and activities between places and it is an activity in which both place characteristics and personal self-identities are formed, through the relationships that are created among places, landscapes and people. By the 1950s, tourism geography began to be accepted as its own domain, especially in scientific works from USA and Germany. The first definitions were pretty vague and incomplete, G. Chabot (1964) stating that  geography and tourism are two terms predestined to be joined because every geographer has to necessarily be doubled by the qualities of a tourist and also reciprocally, What is the importance of tourism?   tourism is important in many ways in the world it can be for   leisure,business,education,culture and its fun it is the very happiest part of the life tour Tourism is important because it brings in extra money. People are will to pay $20 for a $5 hat   that says new york on it. Also, it gives restaurants more customers, because people do not   necessarily bring boxes of food, and stove and oven with them on vacation.   The Tourism industry is important for any country as it brings in foreign currency, allows for cultural exchanges between people and creates many working places for the citizens. importance of tourism   Tourism is vital for many, many countries, some of these countries include: * Jordan * Egypt * Greece * Thailand * Cypress * Malta   * Mexico * Philippines * The Bahamas * Fiji * Maldives * Seychelles Due to the large intake of money for businesses   with their goods and services and the opportunity for employment in service industries   associated with tourism. These service industries include: * transportation services(airlines, cruise ships and taxis) * hospitality services   (accommodations, hotels and resorts) * entertainment venues, (amusement parks, casinos,   shopping malls, music venues and the theaters)   Several important reasons for tourism include: - Economic development through tourism income - Promoting concerned central place for business   - Creation of a wide range of jobs Medical Tourism Over the last few years, medical Tourism has increasingly gained popularity among highly   industrialized countries like the United States. Varying reports containing medical tourism   statistics put the number of American patients seeking healthcare abroad between 500,000 to   750,000 in 2007. This is a steady increase from the previous year, which medical experts believed as much as   200,000 to half a million Americans traveled out of the country for medical procedures. These   figures indicate a significant growth in the Medical Tourism industry, currently a $20 billion   market, which can reach $100 billion by 2012. In India alone studies conducted by government and private sectors in India estimate that   medical tourism could bring between $1 billion and $2 billion US into India by 2012. Leisure travel : Travel for fun, to relax or escape from the daily routine # Eco-tourism:  travel to delicate and   usually protected areas to educate travelers and fundraise for conservation projects. #   Medical tourism:  tourists are seeking healthcare treatments # Cultural tourism:  is concerned   with a country or region's culture, especially its arts # Dark tourism:  involves visits to dark sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide All of the above   types of tourism bring additional revenues to the economies of the destination city or   country, in particular, to its hospitality service industries (restaurants, hotels, transportation).   In addition to those revenues, the amounts tourists spend for the specific attractions outlined   above bring even more revenues into the destination country's economy. For example: In India, where the government is investing in the medical tourism industry, it is   estimated that medical tourism could bring between $US 1 billion and $2 billion into India by   2012. This figure is based on studies conducted by government and private sectors, based   on the current growth rate of medical tourism in India. Factors Affecting Tourism   Introduction Geography Essay-Factors Affecting Tourism Tourism is one of the major sources to provide income to a country because it helps them develop their country efficiently. However, tourism does bring positive and  negative effects socially. First of all, no one can foresee all tourists behave well in foreign places. Consequently, we may witness tourists behave badly because not all tourists respect the local culture or religion of the country in, for example: in 2007, a drunk Swiss tourist defacing several posters of the Thai King. And some western tourists in Muslim countries drink alcohol in the public and dress inappropriately. Secondly, tourism can also attracts growth in drugs by western 'Hippies' because local citizens force their own children to leave school early or even quit school to sell drugs because children is a good tactic to ingratiate tourists buying their products. Middle However, fast food stores usually sell food with plenty of oil and seasonings that harms our health and alters locals' diet, therefore illnesses such as obesity, high blood pressure etc. occurs. Furthermore, depletion and diversion of resources such as water leaving less for the locals because large amount of water will be provided to hotels for swimming pools and golf courses. Consequently, shortage of clean water leads locals suffering from diarrhea and cholera. In order to preserve their own culture, locals usually set up cultural villages or cultural stores to attract tourists. Yet, local carnivals are being commoditized because this is a good way to slow down or prevent the annexation of western culture such as absrcines performing traditional dances at cultural villages in Australia. In my own judgment, I believe one of the most negative effects lead by tourism is the growth sex tourism Conclusion Prejudices can be reduced between the host and the tourists because we can understand each other's culture by interaction. Development of tourism can provide more job opportunities for women because women have stronger communication abilities compared to men, therefore they can work in hotels to answer customers' enquires or apply jobs which requires very frequent communications between themselves and customers. Increasing of income can also improve their infrastructure such as building higher quality roads, hospitals and providing better electricity and water to locals because they can invest more money to hire specialists to advice and guide workers to improve their infrastructure in better quality. In conclusion, although tourism provides large amount of income to the country, in majority, tourism causes more negative impacts than positive impacts. Therefore, tourism may not be a good alternative for development. ?? ?? ?? IATA AREAS  World Geography    World Geography is an essential part of Travel Industry. Any Travel agents or travel consultant who is handling matters related to preparations of Itineraries, reservations, fare calculations and ticketing should have a thorough knowledge about the world geography and also should be able to identify the cities by the  location, country, areas and sub areas defined by IATA. If a person who is related to travel field is having the knowledge about the world geography then he or she can easily plan out the best suitable itinerary . Iata has three area’s or zones  1/ Traffic Conference Area 1(TC1) 2/ Traffic Conference Area 2 (TC2) 3/ Traffic Conference Area 3( TC3)  Area-1 (Tariff Conference - 1(TC1)  North America Canada, Greenland, Mexico, St. Pierre & Miquelon, USA including Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands. US Territories  American Samoa, Johnston Atoll, Swains Is., Baker Is., Kingman Reef, Palmyra Is., Guam, Midway Is., Wake Is., Howland Is., Northern Mariana Is., Jarvis, Saipan. Caribbean  Anguilla, Dominican Republic, Netherlands, Antilles, Antigua and Bermuda, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, Barbados, Haiti, St. Vincent and The grenadines, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Cuba, Martinique, Turks and Caicos Is., Dominica, Montserrat, British Virgin Islands. Central America Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua. South America  Argentina, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, French Guiana, Suriname, Brazil, Guyana, Uruguay, Chile, Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, Paraguay.  Area 2 (Tariff Conference - 2(TC2))   Antarctica  Antarctica Europe Europe  Albania, Germany, Norway, Algeria, Gibraltar, Poland, Andorra, Greece, Portugal, Armenia, Hungary, Romania, Austria, Iceland, Russia (in Europe), Azerbaijan, Ireland, San Marino, Belarus, Italy, Serbia, Belgium, Latvia,
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