UN Security Council Resolution 1325 in Kenya: Dilemmas and Opportunities

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UN Security Council Resolution 1325 in Kenya: Dilemmas and Opportunities
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    UN Security Council Resolution 1325 in Kenya: Dilemmas and Opportunities Njoki Wamai  Working Papers in British-Irish Studies No. # 2013 Institute for British-Irish Studies University College Dublin  2   IBIS working papers No. #, 2013 ©   Njoki Wamai , 2013 ISSN #  3    ABSTRACT The 2007/8 post election violence renewed interest in adoption and implementation of a national action plan   due to the impact of the violence. The process of developing the Kenya National Action Plan (KNAP) for Security Council Resolution 1325 and 1820 on women, peace and security started in 2009 through a consultative process between an inter-ministerial secretariat in partnership with civil society groups. This working paper explores the current integration and positioning dilemmas the KNAP faces which may impact on its effectiveness while assessing the opportunities and challenges presented by current transitional justice initiatives such as the ICC and appointments of gender champions in potential ministries that could house the KNAP.  4   BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION Njoki Wamai is a Phd Candidate at the University of Cambridge, Politics and IR department and a member of the National Steering Committee on SCR 1325 in Kenya.  5   Introduction The 2007/8 post election violence (PEV) experiences in Kenya renewed interest in the adoption and implementation of Security Council resolutions 1325 and 1820. Before the 2007/8 post election violence the process of adoption was slow. In June 2009, the process of developing the Kenya National Action Plan (KNAP) started under the leadership of the National Gender and Equality Commission under an inclusive and participatory process between the government and civil society. The Kenya National Action Plan (KNAP) is premised on four pillars: prevention, protection, participation, relief and recovery. The KNAP is unique compared to other NAPs because it is premised on a human security framework in an attempt to address the root causes of the economic and social-political issues around peace and security facing Kenyan women. Additionally, the proposed KNAP promises to deepen understanding of the multiple roles and concerns that women have in peace processes while mainstreaming them by creating accountability from different actors responsible for its implementation through resource allocation and policy development. This working paper explores the dilemmas and challenges that have so far shaped the development of the KNAP process by employing critical analysis and lessons learnt from other case studies. It also explores possible opportunities and challenges presented by the new regime in implementing the KNAP. The paper will proceed as follows. The next section sets the contextual background of the Kenyan post election violence (PEV) which increased the urgency to adopt and implement Security Council Resolution (SCR) 1325. The background section then leads to further discussion on specific ways of how Kenyan women participated in the violence and the peace process. The analytical framework in this paper is drawn from conceptual and practical dilemmas and challenges that have presented themselves in other contexts where SCR 1325 is being mainstreamed through the development of National Action Plans (NAPs). This analytical frame will then be used to assess the current dilemmas that Kenya faces when developing its National Action Plan while discussing probabilities of other challenges that may arise in the process of developing the NAP which need to be considered before a conclusion is made. The next section sets the background context of the SCR 1325 in Kenya. This background traces Kenya’s post election violence and the experiences of women during PEV. Background to Kenya PEV and UNSCR 1325 Process The post election violence in 2007/2008 led to a renewed interest in the adoption of SCR 1325 following the death of more than 1,133 people and displacement of more than 650,000 people including women and children (GOK 2008).
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