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URBANIZATION. With much help from Pam Rogers (almost Ph. D). What is Settlement?. How should we define settlement for our purposes in this class?. Is this “Settlement?”. Settlement…. WHY??? Why did we start settling? What did it provide us that hunting/gathering did not?.
URBANIZATIONWith much help from Pam Rogers (almost Ph. D)What is Settlement?How should we define settlement for our purposes in this class?Is this “Settlement?”Settlement…WHY???
  • Why did we start settling?
  • What did it provide us that hunting/gathering did not?
  • Figure it out yourself!
  • List some good things about collecting ourselves into larger groups of PERMANENT settlements.
  • Must not have been good enoughHow do we choose a specific site?
  • What makes one place better than another for settlement?
  • Proximity to a ResourceSITECharacteristics– the physical/natural characteristics (rocky, fertile, forest) and exact location of the community itself. Ask: “Where is it?”Ie:  on the coast, at the junction of two rivers, in a valley, on a bay, in the mountains SITUATION Characteristics – refers to the features of the region that surround the specific settlement.  The situation may include factors such as economic capability, climatic conditions, relation to other central places, transportation and direction.  The situation includes a much larger area than does the site. Ask: What is it like?”Ie:  accessible by water, NW of the river, west of Toronto, rich in fertile soil, protected by high mountainsCaracas, VenezuelaCASE STUDY!!!!Natural Resources and Land QualityIndustrial RevolutionGROWTH
  • Urban populations grow in two ways:
  • natural increase (more births than deaths)
  • improved food supplies
  • better sanitation
  • advances in medical care
  • Immigration
  • the largest source growth
  • caused both by push factors that force people out of the country and by pull factors that draw them into the city.
  • Push Factors
  • The "surplus" population is forced to migrate to cities in search for jobs, food, and housing. In some places, economic forces or political, racial, or religious conflicts drive people out of their homes.
  • Rural to Urban - Examples
  • The UN estimated that in 1992 at least 10 million people fled their native country and that another 30 or 40 million were internal refugees within their own country, displaced by political, economic, or social instability.
  • http://www.lhup.edu/smarvel/Seminar/FALL_2000/albernaz/albernaz.htm
  • Pull Factors
  • Even in the most chaotic cities, many people are there by choice, attracted by the excitement, vitality, and opportunity to meet others like themselves.
  • The most important thing to them is that cities offer jobs, housing, entertainment, and freedom from the constraints of village traditions. Possibilities exist in the city for upward social mobility, prestige, and power not available in the country
  • http://www.lhup.edu/smarvel/Seminar/FALL_2000/albernaz/albernaz.htm
  • Settlement Bad?
  • Lack/Overuse of resources
  • Miss-use of resources
  • Want (you lack a resource) + Anonymity (you MIGHT get away with shenanigans) = deviance (crime)
  • Laws necessary
  • Pollution
  • Logistical management challenges
  • Emile Durkheim
  • Sociologist who studied crime, deviance, suicide, division of labour in society
  • Theory:
  • Anomie – when societies become highly specialized and complex, there is greater chance for people to feel like they do not have a place in society. Norms and morals are lost by those who do not fit into this complex system of labour.
  • Urban Sprawl
  • The spreading of urban developments (houses and shopping centers) on undeveloped land near a city
  • Shanty towns
  • Cape Town, South Africa Zamboanga , PhilippinesManila, Philippines Manila ContinuedCairo, EgyptCairo, Egypt (8 million)
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