Using Manure for Row Crop Production

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Using Manure for Row Crop Production. Edwin Ritchey Extension Soil Specialist UK-REC. “Organic” Amendments. Animal Manures Processed Municipal Waste – “be in front of the line” Louisville Green (5-3-0)
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Using Manure for Row Crop ProductionEdwin RitcheyExtension Soil SpecialistUK-REC“Organic” Amendments
  • Animal Manures
  • Processed Municipal Waste – “be in front of the line”
  • Louisville Green (5-3-0)
  • Separate solids, anaerobic digesters, dewatered in centrifuges, heat dried in rotary drums
  • Warren County has a “new” operation on-line
  • Lime stabilized waste (many are giving away)
  • Composted Products
  • Decomposition process that reduces the volume and produces a stabilized product
  • Concentrates some nutrients, not others
  • Spreading Poultry LitterManure and Compost = $$$
  • Animal Manure is a complete fertilizer
  • Calculate value based on N-P-K
  • But more value than just N-P-K
  • Ca, Mg, S, B, Mo, Zn, Cu, and “other”
  • Hard to measure “other” – but I am trying!!!
  • Increased OM, improved structure, improved tilth, and plant available water
  • Must be aware of mineralization rates and loss mechanisms
  • Value of Nutrients in Manure
  • Bulk fertilizer prices per ton (10-12-12)
  • Urea (46-0-0) $790 (N=$0.86/lb N)
  • KCl (0-0-60) $597 (K2O=$0.54/lb K)
  • DAP (18-46-0) $649
  • if only considered N= $1.80/lb N
  • if only considered P= $0.71/lb P2O5
  • accounting for N in DAP = $0.37/lb P2O5
  • Must consider what nutrients are needed
  • Value = $62.43/ton adjusted for availability
  • (assuming 55-55-45 and 50, 80, and 100% availability)
  • Value of Nutrients in Manure
  • Bulk fertilizer prices per ton (10-2-13)
  • Urea (46-0-0) $460 (N=$0.50/lb N)
  • KCl (0-0-60) $445 (K2O=$0.37/lb K)
  • DAP (18-46-0) $500
  • if only considered N= $1.39/lb N
  • if only considered P= $0.54/lb P2O5
  • accounting for N in DAP = $0.35/lb P2O5
  • Must consider what nutrients are needed
  • Value = $51.51/ton adjusted for availability
  • (assuming 55-55-45 and 50, 80, and 100% availability)
  • Nutrient Variation - N
  • Mineralization (Organic N  NH4+)
  • Warm, moist, and O2
  • Ammonia loss (NH3)
  • Warm, wet, and windy
  • Nitrification (NH4+ NO3-)
  • NH4+ present, warm, moist, and O2
  • Denitrification (NO3-  NO2-  NO  N20  N2)
  • NO3- , waterlogged soils, available carbon, and warm
  • Leaching (NO3-)
  • Nitrogen Rate DeterminationIS UK RECOMMENDING ENOUGH N?
  • Based on crop response for: different drainage classes, tillage practice, and crop history
  • Crop needs differ (e.g. corn vs. wheat)
  • Drainage class: well drained soil requires less N than poorly drained soil
  • Not based on yield goals, no difference in most instances (exception-irrigated fields?)
  • Specific Research ResultsThe Use of Organic Soil Amendments for Wheat and Corn ProductionConsiderations
  • Time of poultry houses cleanout
  • Mainly Spring and Fall
  • Other organic sources
  • Composts – Between planting and harvest
  • Processed Municipal Waste – Year round
  • Nutrient availabilities – Varies
  • Due to type of material, timing, application and storage method, mineralization rates, etc
  • Nitrogen Availability (PL)Crop Management* Availability (%)Corn or Spring AppliedAnnual Grass 2 days 60 5-6 days 50 > 7 days <45Fall Applied No Cover Crop 15 Cover Crop 50Wheat Preplant 50Pasture (cool) Spring/Fall 80* Incorporation with tillage or > 0.5 inches of rain (AGR-146)Methods
  • Zanesville Silt Loam (2011)
  • Applied PL, LG, CSM based on Total N
  • Assumed 100% available
  • 100, 150, and 200 lbs total N/A for wheat
  • 100, 200, and 300 lbs total N/A for corn
  • 4 Rates of inorganic N plus non-treated check
  • 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 lbs N/A for wheat
  • 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 lbs N/A for corn
  • 2011 Results (LSD = 6.7)2011 Results (LSD = 6.7)† Availabilities are compared to commercial fertilizer N response data. Slight differences in equivalent urea-N and subsequent availabilities are attributed to the variation in the fitted line verses the actual response.2012 Results (LSD = 15.6)2012 Results (LSD = 15.6)† Availabilities are compared to commercial fertilizer N response data. Slight differences in equivalent urea-N and subsequent availabilities are attributed to the variation in the fitted line verses the actual response.2013 Corn Results2013 Corn ResultsWhat do these results mean?
  • Need more information
  • N availability varies (between and within products)
  • Probably not 50% N availability with wheat and corn when surface applied
  • Incorporation with tillage???
  • Are they still a good deal???
  • Put a pencil to it and consider other benefits
  • If not Yield then What?
  • Soil Organic Matter
  • Resistance to compaction
  • Residual Nitrogen
  • Infiltration/Structure – infiltrometer
  • Plant Available Water – pressure plate
  • Other Benefits???
  • Experimental Design 16 reps.32 reps.2012 Corn Yield (bu/acre) 2012 Soybean Yield (bu/acre) Other Considerations
  • The environment (DOW, EPA, DAQ)
  • “Though shall not pollute”
  • Utilize setbacks
  • Neighbors (Good fences make good neighbors)
  • Good neighbors make good neighbors
  • Litter was stockpiled and later applied
  • Producer was told to incorporate or $25,000 fine
  • 401 KAR 53:101 – mix 1 part “polluted air” with 7 parts of filtered air and if odor is detected then in violation
  • Conclusions
  • More information is needed for KY
  • Organic amendments are a good source of plant nutrients, but…
  • Optimize nutrients present (DAP for N)
  • Test soil, test manure
  • Availabilities vary between and within sources
  • Be considerate of environment and neighbors
  • Questions?
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