VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY STUDY ON THE TEACHER'S ATTITUDE SCALE ABOUT THE PLACE BASED EDUCATION APPROACH APPLIED DURING THE SOCIAL STUDIES

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This research has been aiming on making the study of validity and safety of the " The Teacher's Attitude Scale About The Place Based Education Approach Applied During The Social Studies " which was developed for determining the social
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   IJOESS   Year: 9, Vol:9, Issue: 33 SEPTEMBER 2018   1833 Özkaral, T . C. and Mentiş Taş , A. (2018). Validity And Reliability Study on the Teacher’s Atti tude Scale About the Place Based Education Approach Applied During the Social Studies, International Journal of Eurasia Social Sciences, Vol: 9, Issue: 33, pp. (1833-1842).  Research Article VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY STUDY ON THE TEACHER’S ATTITUDE SCALE ABOUT THE PLACE BASED EDUCATION APPROACH APPLIED DURING THE SOCIAL STUDIES 1   Tuğba Cevriye ÖZKARAL   Dr., Necmettin Erbakan University, tozkaral@konya.edu.tr ORCID Number: 0000-0003-4595-816X  Ayşe MENTİŞ TAŞ    Assoc. Prof. Dr., Necmettin Erbakan University, aysementistas@hotmail.com   ORCID Number: 0000-0002-1175-812X Received: 02.05.2018 Accepted: 24.09.2018  ABSTRACT This research has been aiming on making the study of validity and safety of the “The Teacher’s Attitude Scale About The Place Based Education Approach Applied During The Social Studies” which was developed for determining the social studies teachers’ attit udes through the place based education approach. During the preparation of the scale, primarily an item pool was formed scanning the literature and expert opinions are addressed. The working team of the research, is formed of totally 228 teachers who are situated in the Konya city center and giving social studies courses and determined through the simple random sampling method. Exploratory factor analysis was made for the purpose of examining the construct validity of “The Teacher’s Attitude Scale About The Place Based Education Approach Applied During The Social Studies”. Total item correlation (item distinction values) which gives the scale on consistency of the items with each other and all the test for examining the reliability and Cronbach internal consistency factor have been calculated. As a result of the research it was precipitated with the items (17 items) excluded from the scale that it was valid and reliable. The scale consists of 28 items and 3 sub-dimensions. Keywords:  Place based education, social studies, attitude. 1   This declaration was presented as a verbal statement under ICOESS, which was held on 4-7 April 2018. (2nd International Congress of Eurasia Social Sciences).   IJOESS   Year: 9, Vol:9, Issue: 33 SEPTEMBER 2018   1834 Özkaral, T . C. and Mentiş Taş , A. (2018). Validity And Reliability Study on the Teacher’s Atti tude Scale About the Place Based Education Approach Applied During the Social Studies, International Journal of Eurasia Social Sciences, Vol: 9, Issue: 33, pp. (1833-1842).   INTRODUCTION From past to present, we have seen that the children are not enough who are raised only with the theoretical information and far from the real life. Such approaches are needed to get students active; not to imprison them to the class, inside four walls; to get them have strong connections with the places they live and to help them finding solutions to the local problems. The place based education, is one of these approaches. Place Based Education (Yer Temelli Eğitim ) is listed as "Place Based Education" in foreign literature. David Sobel is one of the pioneers of this approach and gives important information about the approach. According to Sobel (2004), place based education; is the process of using local society and the environment as a starting point for teaching concepts in language arts, mathematics, social studies, science and other fields. This approach, which emphasizes the experiences gained by doing, the experiences of learning the real world, increases academic achievement in education; helps students to develop stronger ties to society; increases students' gratitude towards natural life and creates responsibilities for them to serve as active, helping citizens. Community spirit and environmental quality are developed through the active involvement of local citizens, community organizations and environmental resources in school life. According to Yıldız Yılmaz and Tabaru (2017); Even place based education is a new approach as a name, it is not an approach that has not been implemented in educational institutions before. The place-based education approach, which enables learners to learn in-situ and by living and provides permanent and meaningful learning on this path, constitutes the framework of many approaches that are also applied in the constructivist approach. Smith and Sobel (2010) suggest place and community based education. And they consider rural, urban and sub-urban societies as an approach to teach academic disciplines and an approach that allows them to think about the role of the school as a starting place for the environment in society. It is known that place based education is widely used in the United States. The PEEC-Place Based Education Evaluation Collaborative has an important role in the implementation of place-based education and the development of its programs in the United States. Examples of PEEC programs are following (PEEC, 2018): Sustainable Schools Project, Litzsinger Road Ecology Center, A Forest For Every Classroom/FFEC, Thompson Island Outward Bound Education Center. Examples of Place Based Education activities given by Roberts (2013) are: 1-Students go to a theater and write an assessment of the show. 2-Go to the beach and write a poem or a creative writing about their living. 3-Go to the art gallery and discuss or write their thoughts about why their favorite pictures are better than others as a couple or as a group. 4-Go to the state library and benefit from resources to do homework. 5-Go to a university and attend a course of interest (guided by an instructor).   IJOESS   Year: 9, Vol:9, Issue: 33 SEPTEMBER 2018   1835 Özkaral, T . C. and Mentiş Taş , A. (2018). Validity And Reliability Study on the Teacher’s Atti tude Scale About the Place Based Education Approach Applied During the Social Studies, International Journal of Eurasia Social Sciences, Vol: 9, Issue: 33, pp. (1833-1842).  6-Work on a topic of war, peace, migration, racism or religion and go to a Christian church or a Muslim mosque to learn about similarities and differences. It was determined that there were very few studies on the Place Based Education approach when literature review is carried out (Mentiş Taş and   Özkaral, 2015; Köşker, 2012; Köş ker and Karabağ, 2012; Yıldız and  Me ntiş Taş, 2015; Yıldız Yılmaz and  Tabaru, 2017). Determining behaviors of social studied teachers related to Place Based Education which could be applied to the courses such as Language arts, math, science, and to fill an important gap in Place Based Education is the most important side of the research. In this research, it was aimed to study the validity and reliability of the "Teacher Attitude Scale Related to the Place Based Educational Approach Applied in the Social Studies" which was developed to determine the attitudes of the social studies teachers to the place based education approach. METHOD   Research Model The working team of the research, is formed of totally 228 teachers who are situated in the Konya city center and giving social studies courses and determined through the simple random sampling method. Table 1. Study Group Gender F Branch f Female 124 Class teachers 124 Male 104 Social studies teachers 104 Total 228 Total 228 Educational Background F Service Years f Associate 9 1-5 year 88 Undergraduate 181 6-10 year 56 Master 37 11-15 year 35 Doctorate 1 16-20 year 21 21 year and over 28 Total 228 Total 228 Receive in-service training f Yes 39 No 189 Total 228 According to Table 1, 124 participants in the study group were female, 104 were male and 124 were class, and 104 were social studies teachers. 9 of the participants are associate, 181 are undergraduate, 37 are masters   IJOESS   Year: 9, Vol:9, Issue: 33 SEPTEMBER 2018   1836 Özkaral, T . C. and Mentiş Taş , A. (2018). Validity And Reliability Study on the Teacher’s Atti tude Scale About the Place Based Education Approach Applied During the Social Studies, International Journal of Eurasia Social Sciences, Vol: 9, Issue: 33, pp. (1833-1842).  and 1 is a doctorate degree. 88 of the participants have 1-5 years of experience, 56 of them have 6-10 years of experience, 35 of them have 11-15 years of experience, 21 of them have 16-20 years of experience. 28 of them have an experience of 21 years and over. 39 of the participants received in-service training in this regard, 189 of them did not receive. Data Collection Tool  The first part of the scale, which is developed as a data collection tool, consists of the directive. The second part consists of personal information and the third part consists of expressions and response options. The directive includes information about the purpose of the scale, the total number of expressions, the format of the response, and the Place Based training approach. In the Personal Information form, information such as gender, branch, education status, occupational experience (year), and in-service training on the Place Based education approach are included. In the section on phrases and responses, there are statements that will enable teachers who teach social science classes to determine their attitudes towards the Place Based education approach and the corresponding response options. Before the scale was created, the literature was searched and a item pool consisting of 30 items was created within the boundaries of the subject. Analysis of Data Within the scope of validity and reliability studies of "Teacher Attitude Scale Related to Place Based Education Approach Applied in Social Studies Course".Expert opinion were taken from 5 lecturers in Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University, Ahi Evran University, Nevşehir University, Adıyaman University Facu lty of Education. 4 of the experts, are subject area experts and 1 is a measurement and evaluation specialist. In the view of expert opinion, it has been found that some items express two conditions. For this reason, these items were divided into two and the number of items have been 45.   Explanatory Factor Analysis (AFA) was used to provide evidence of the validity of the scale's construction. In order to test the reliability, the item-total correlation (item discriminant values) and the Cronbach alpha internal consistency coefficient, which measure the coherence of the items to each other and the test, are calculated. FINDINGS In this section, findings obtained about the validity and reliability of "Teacher Attitude Scale Related to Place Based Educational Approach in Social Studies Lesson" developed within the scope of the research are presented. The item-total correlations were examined before revealing the factor structure of the scale. And negative correlation items such as 9,10,18,22,23,32, and 39 were not included in the analysis. The Explicit Factor Analysis was conducted on 38 items to reveal the factor structure of the scale.   IJOESS   Year: 9, Vol:9, Issue: 33 SEPTEMBER 2018   1837 Özkaral, T . C. and Mentiş Taş , A. (2018). Validity And Reliability Study on the Teacher’s Atti tude Scale About the Place Based Education Approach Applied During the Social Studies, International Journal of Eurasia Social Sciences, Vol: 9, Issue: 33, pp. (1833-1842).  AFA was used to provide evidence of the validity of the structure of the scale. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the Teacher Attitude Scale related to the Place Based Educational Approach applied in the Social Studies lesson. In AFA, Basic Component Analysis was used as a factorization technique. Before the interpretation of findings obtained as a result of the Principal Component Analysis the results of the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Test and the Barlett Test were taken into consideration and whether the sample size was adequate and whether the normality assumption was met. The KMO value is a measure of the suitability of the data structure for factor analysis in terms of sample size. The KMO value is interpreted as follows: "If the sample size is between 0.50-0.60, the size is poor [bad]" "between 0.60-0.70 weak", "between 0.70-0.80 Medium", Between 0.80- 0.90 good", "Excellent if it is over 0.90" (Leech, Barrett and Morgan, 2005, act: Çokluk, Şekercioğlu and Büyüköztürk, 2010). The findings are presented in Table 2.   Table 2.  KMO ve Barlett Test KMO Test .888 Barlett Test Ki- kare (χ  2 ) 6551.915 sd 703 P .000 As a result of the factor analysis, the KMO value was 0.888. The value close to 1 indicates that the data structure is perfectly suitable for factor analysis in terms of sample size. Moreover, according to Barlett's sphericity test result, the x- square (χ2) value was found to be 0.01 level significant (χ2 = 6551.915, p <.01). These findings indicate that the data come from the highly variable normal distribution (Çokluk et al., 2010). According to these findings, it can be said that the items in the scale are suitable for factor analysis in terms of the feature to be measured. Table 3. Findings Related to Factors as a Result of Basic Component Analysis Factors Eigenvalue Percentages of Variance Percentages of the Total Variance 1   13,745 36,170 36,170 2   3,171 8,344 44,514 3   2,346 6,173 50,687 4   1,770 4,657 55,344 5   1,590 4,185 59,530 6   1,471 3,871 63,400 7   1,230 3,237 66,637 8 1,076 2,832 69,469 9 1,025 2,696 72,165 When Table 3, which shows the percentages of variance pertaining to the factors included in the scale is evaluated, there are nine factors with an eigenvalue greater than 1.00. The first factor accounts for 36.170% of the total variance, the second factor accounts for 8.344% of the total variance, the third factor accounts for 6.173% of the total variance, and the fourth factor accounts for 4.657% of the total variance. After the fourth
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