A City that Plans: Reinventing Urban Planning

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A City that Plans: Reinventing Urban Planning
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  A City that Plans: ReinventingUrban Planning   1  Today, many cities in the world still rely on outdated modes of planning notwithstanding that planning is central to achieving sustainable urban development.   2  Cities across the world are sprawling, and as such, densities are dramatically declining. In developing countries, a one per cent decline in densities per year between 2000 and 2050 would quadruple the urban land area.   3  Planning frameworks in most cities are not gender-sensitive; consequently, women are often left outside of the planning process and decisions.   4  Planning capacity is grossly inadequate in much of the developing world. In the UK, there are 38 planners per 100,000 population, while in Nigeria and India the figure is 1.44 and 0.23 respectively.   1  Integrated, multi-sectoral planning approaches have a strong success record and should be used in many more cities and regions.   2  Local circumstances, needs and requirements must remain pre-eminent in urban planning, so are gender considerations and involvement of— and responsiveness to— the diverse populations.   3  Plans should be prepared at various geographic scales and integrated to support sustainable and coordinated road, transit, housing, economic development and land use across geographic and political boundaries. 4  In developing countries, education and training for professional planners should be increased and capacity for planning education be enhanced, concomitantly.  QUICK FACTSPOLICY POINTS  C  H A P T  E  R  󰀰󰀷  A City that Plans    embraces views  A City that Plans versus  The Planned City   A City that Plans    integrates The Planned City  >  reflects only the views of national leadership >  no local input >  favouritism and nepotism >  distorted priorities ResidentsElected leadersInfrastructureEmployers & employmentLand useCultureInvestorsEducationNatural resources  Planning capacity  varies greatly across the world NEW COMPREHENSIVENESS Newer planning approaches: >  are more multisectoral >  address global concerns  e.g climate change & gender equality >   critically examine  new ideas before adoption Urban Sprawl Loss of agricultural landIncrease in greenhouse gas emissionsHigher commuting time and costs LATIN AMERICAN CITIES ACCREDITEDPLANNERS per 100,000 population ACCREDITEDPLANNERS per 100,000 population ACCREDITEDPLANNERS per 100,000 population BILLION PER YEAR Public service costs increase as density decreases in small and medium-sized cities UK Nigeria India Estimated costs in the US alone from higher infrastructure, public service and transport costsSocio-spatial segregation and segmentation 8,60038 1.44 0.23 US$400 Neighbourhood levelCity levelMetropolitan levelNational levelSupranational level Within any given scale, congruency of plans among sectors is vital to successful planning outcomes  123    C   H   A   P   T   E   R   7  :   A   C   I   T   Y   T   H   A   T   P   L   A   N   S  :   R   E   I   N   V   E   N   T   I   N   G   U   R   B   A   N   P   L   A   N   N   I   N   G         •     W   O   R   L   D   C   I   T   I   E   S   R   E   P   O   R   T   2   0   1   6 mitments and actions promoting the positive effects of urbanization while limiting those more negative impacts, emphasizing adequate shelter for all and sustainable human settlements. 1 Since Habitat II, unprecedented population growth in many cities keeps challenging governments, business and civil society for adequate responses. Other cities have declined in population, with attendant eco-nomic and environmental challenges. At the turn of the millennium, UN-Habitat understood that advancing the Habitat Agenda would require changes in the way urban planning is practised around the globe. Working together  with professional planners’ organizations worldwide, UN-Habitat has promoted a reinvented urban planning with aims of ensuring environmental sustainability, promoting equal access to the benefits cities offer, building safety, health and inclusiveness, engaging public, private and third sectors, as well as facilitating good governance. The reinvention of urban planning in the post-Habitat II era has embraced principles 2  endorsed in 2006 at the third session of the World Urban Forum in Vancouver (Box 7.1).Central to this reinvention is   planning as an ongoing, inclusive process instead of as a one-off design of a master vision, what has been described as “  a city that plans ” in contrast to “ the planned city .” 3    A city that  plans  embraces the views of residents, employers, inves-tors, and elected leaders, in contrast to the ubiquitous, age-old pattern of planning that reflected only the views of national leadership.  A city that plans  looks to integrate land use, employment, education, infrastructure, culture, and natural resources. This contrasts with the older plan-ning pattern of attending to the physical design of public buildings, streets, parks etc., while allowing other dimen-sions of urban development to be determined solely by market forces.  A city that plans  not only projects the future from past trends, it also brings the public, private and third sectors together with communities to build a collectively preferred future.The city that plans is part of a transition over the latter half of the 20th century when planning evolved from a  modernist   process in which planning is viewed as a scientific, universally valid instrument of progress, toward a communicative  process, in which planning is viewed as politically engaged, inclusive and empowering, strategic and integrated. In modernist planning, progress was often elusive and the benefits were often concentrated among small groups of elites. Modernism, moreover, expressed belief in a universal march toward development that overlooked regional differences. In communicative plan-ning, objectives reflect the aspirations of the population as expressed through advocacy and grassroots participa-tion; greater attention is given to the national and cul-tural context; and planning activities are better integrated across spatial and sector-based divisions. Planning has become more multi-faceted rather than focused exclu-sively on physical design of places, more bottom-up than top-down, and more responsive to equity and environ- C ities drive economic productivity and prosperity. As urbanization has advanced, so have global economic output, poverty reduction and social  well-being. Yet, unplanned urbanization has also often led to pollution, congestion, segregation, sprawl and other unintended consequences. In 1996, the Habitat Agenda recognized as much with a set at of goals, principles, com- Box 7.1: The 10 Principles of New Urban Planning 1. Promote sustainable development2. Achieve integrated planning3. Integrate plans with budgets4. Plan with partners and stakeholders5. Meet the subsidiarity principle6. Promote market responsiveness7. Ensure access to land8. Develop appropriate planning tools9. Be pro-poor and inclusive10. Recognize cultural diversity. Source: Farmer et al, 2006. Central to this reinvention is planning as an ongoing, inclusive process instead of as a one-off design of a master visionA city that plans not only projects the future from past trends, it also brings the public, private and third sectors together with communities to build a collectively preferred future  124    C   H   A   P   T   E   R   7  :   A   C   I   T   Y   T   H   A   T   P   L   A   N   S  :   R   E   I   N   V   E   N   T   I   N   G   U   R   B   A   N   P   L   A   N   N   I   N   G         •     W   O   R   L   D   C   I   T   I   E   S   R   E   P   O   R   T   2   0   1   6 mental quality than to business concerns.Implementation of the Habitat Agenda has occurred in the context of the Millennium Development Goals, which prescribed a sector-based perspective that did not readily lend itself to geographically-delineated planning. As the world transitions to the Sustainable Development Goals, which directly address urban sus-tainability, it is important to ask what is needed from urban and regional planning to better ensure progress toward accomplishing these goals. This chapter examines changes in urban and regional planning over the 20 years since Habitat II, aiming to understand how widespread plan-ning’s reinvention has been and  whether urban and regional planning as practiced in communities, regions and nations globally has been effective in advancing the two goals of adequate shelter and sustainable urban settlements. Five lenses are used: (1) the transition from master planning to grassroots equity/advocacy community visioning; (3) rethinking land use and public space; (3) policy-sector integration and new tangible realities; (4) geographic (scalar) integration; and (5) planning capacity. The world has not achieved adequate shelter for all and sustainable human settlements. While notable progress has been made on some dimensions in many places, including economic growth, and resilience, these overarching goals are further from realization today glob-ally than they were in 1996 by many measures, including two to threefold higher rate of increase in urban land com-pared with urban population and increases in the numbers of those without access to improved sanitation. The immediate task is not to ask whether cities are more sus-tainable today than they were, but instead to ask whether the results of urban and regional planning over the last two decades have made cities more sustainable today than they would have been had planning not advanced as it has. Two cautions are needed. First, recognizing that urban planning responds to and affects the full range of dimensions of urban life, complete treatment of the subject would include discussion of housing and slums, inclusion, equity, basic services, environment, economy, and governance, the subjects of Chapters 3 through to Chapter 8 of this report. This is impractical, so instead readers are cautioned that much of what they have already read in these chapters must be kept in mind for a full understanding of how urban and regional planning has changed in these years. Most notably, the Habitat Agenda goal of adequate shelter for all is the subject of Chapter 3.Second, many of those reading this chapter prize ideas that can be transferred across borders. There is a quest for promoting best practices and for “scaling up,” building successful local experiments into national and then global norms. Against this quest, there is need to recognize the built-in conflict between transferability and the ideals of participation, stakeholder engagement, and sensitivity to local culture and institutions that reinvented planning calls for. Indeed, it is good to learn from each other— from country to country, and town to town—but it is important to pick, adapt and amend foreign ideas so that they work in the local context. Planners and other public officials often want to know enough about what has happened in other places in order to have informed, intelligent debates about what to do in their jurisdictions, but approaches chosen must be achievable with the avail-able resources. Planning is about making such choices, no guidebook can short circuit the need for planning. Planning has become more multi-faceted rather than focused exclusively on physical design of places, more bottom-up than top-down, and more responsive to equity and environmental quality ...there is need to recognize the built-in conflict between transferability and the ideals of participation, stakeholder engagement, and sensitivity to local culture and institutions that reinvented planning calls for Community planning for reconstruction in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Source: Nugroho Nurdikiawan Sunjoyo / World Bank, CC BY 2.0, https://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/2.0/legalcode   125    C   H   A   P   T   E   R   7  :   A   C   I   T   Y   T   H   A   T   P   L   A   N   S  :   R   E   I   N   V   E   N   T   I   N   G   U   R   B   A   N   P   L   A   N   N   I   N   G         •     W   O   R   L   D   C   I   T   I   E   S   R   E   P   O   R   T   2   0   1   6 the urban poor, women, 5  youth, the aged, and indigenous peoples in the physical and socioeconomic spaces of the city; to prevent environmental degradation or the formation of slums, or deploy effective transportation systems.In the post-Habitat II era, many planning regimes have been significantly altered in bids to open up to a much wider range of stakeholders, their needs and aspirations, and so have legal frameworks. Often, the direct role of government has decreased — in favour of the private sector and civil society— and “governance” has frequently replaced “government.” 6  The shift from government to governance is reflected in changes in thinking in the planning profes-sion. In the past, master planners saw the plan as their central accomplishment. Implementation was often given insufficient attention. Today, the planning process is  viewed to be more important, with significant considera-tion given to data collection, monitoring and evaluation, policy networks, decision-making procedures, as well as other procedural and interim products. The plan in turn, 󰀷.󰀱 The Plan is Dead; Long Live the Planners! From Master Plan to Community Vision  While some historic master plans, also referred to as blueprint or layout plans, were influential in trans-forming cities in valuable directions and were wrapped in the mantle of the  public interest  , others reflected the needs and aspirations of the wealthy and powerful to the exclu-sion of the wider population. 4  With too few exceptions, master planning has failed to integrate the interests of Table 7.1: The 12 key principles of urban and territorial planning Source: UN-Habitat, 2015e. PILLARPRINCIPLES Urban Policy and Governance1. Urban and territorial planning is more than a technical tool, it is an integrative and participatory decision-making process that addresses competing interests and is linked to a shared vision, an overall development strategy and national, regional and local urban policies; 2. Urban and territorial planning represents a core component of the renewed urban governance paradigm, which promotes local democracy, participation and inclusion, transparency and accountability, with a view to ensuring sustainable urbanization and spatial quality. Urban and Territorial Planning for Sustainable Development Urban and Territorial Planning and Social Development  3. Urban and territorial planning primarily aims to realize adequate standards of living and working conditions for all segments of current and future societies, ensure equitable distribution of the costs, opportunities and benefits of urban development and particularly promote social inclusion and cohesion;4. Urban and territorial planning constitutes an essential investment in the future. It is a precondition for a better quality of life and successful globalization processes that respect cultural heritages and cultural diversity, and for the recognition of the distinct needs of various groups. Urban and Territorial Planning and Sustained Economic Growth  5. Urban and territorial planning is a catalyst for sustained and inclusive economic growth, that provides an enabling framework for new economic opportunities, regulation of land and housing markets and the timely provision of adequate infrastructure and basic services;6. Urban and territorial planning constitutes a powerful decision-making mechanism to ensure that sustained economic growth, social development and environmental sustainability go hand in hand to promote better connectivity at all territorial levels Urban and Territorial Planning and the Environment  7. Urban and territorial planning provides a spatial framework to protect and manage the natural and built environment of cities and territories, including their biodiversity, land and natural resources, and to ensure integrated and sustainable development;8. Urban and territorial planning contributes to increased human security by strengthening environmental and socioeconomic resilience, enhancing mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change and improving the management of natural and environmental hazards and risks.Urban and Territorial Planning Components9. Urban and territorial planning combines several spatial, institutional and financial dimensions over a variety of time frames and geographical scales. It is a continuous and iterative process, grounded in enforceable regulations, that aims to promote more compact cities and synergies between territories;10. Urban and territorial planning includes spatial planning, which aims to facilitate and articulate political decisions based on different scenarios. It translates those decisions into actions that will transform the physical and social space and will support the development of integrated cities and territories.Implementation of Urban and Territorial Planning11. Adequate implementation of urban and territorial plans in all their dimensions requires political leadership, appropriate legal and institutional frameworks, efficient urban management, improved coordination, consensus-building approaches and reduced duplication of efforts to respond coherently and effectively to current and future challenges;12. Effective implementation and evaluation of urban and territorial planning requires, in particular, continuous monitoring, periodic adjustments and sufficient capacities at all levels, as well as sustainable financial mechanisms and technologies Many planning regimes have been significantly altered in bids to open up to a much wider range of stakeholders, their needs and aspirations, and so have legal frameworks
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