A Semantic Wiki to Support Knowledge Sharing in Innovation Activities

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A Semantic Wiki to Support Knowledge Sharing in Innovation Activities
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  Chapter # A SEMANTIC WIKI TO SUPPORT KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN INNOVATION ACTIVITIES Inaya Lahoud 1 , Davy Monticolo 2 , Vincent Hilaire 1 , Samuel Gomes 3   1 SET Laboratory, University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard, Belfort, France {Inaya.Lahoud, Vincent.Hilaire}@utbm.fr 2  ERPI Laboratory, Polytechnic National Institute of Lorraine, Nancy, France  Davy.Monticolo@ensgsi.inpl-nancy.fr 3  M3M Laboratory, University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard, Belfort, France Samuel.Gomes@utbm.fr Abstract:  We will present in this paper how to ensure the creation, the validation and the sharing of ideas by using a Semantic Wiki approach. We describe the system called Wiki-I which is used by engineers to allow them to formalize their ideas during the research solutions activities. Wiki-I is based on an ontology of the innovation domain which allows to structure the wiki pages and to store the knowledge posted by the engineers. In this paper, we will explain how Wiki-I ensures the reliability of the innovative ideas thanks to an idea of evaluation  process. After explaining the interest of the use of semantic wikis in innovation management approach, we describe the architecture of Wiki-I with its semantic functionalities. At the end of the paper, we prove the effectiveness of Wiki-I with an ideas evaluation example in the case of students challenge for innovation. Keywords:  Semantic Wiki, Innovation, Ontology, knowledge creation, knowledge evaluation & sharing, SPARQL.  1.   INTRODUCTION There are many definitions of the innovation. “ Innovations are qualitatively new products or processes, which distinguish themselves significantly from previous ones”  [9]. Innovation concerns R&D, product and service development. Armbrustera in [1] distinguishes four different types of innovation: technical product innovations, non-technical service innovations, technical process innovations, and non-technical process innovations, these different innovations are organizational innovations. Innovation is an approach to create value by solving problems. Creativity is a prerequisite for problem-solving and can be applied several times during a product development process. But creativity in an innovation process is not enough to develop a new innovating product or service [8]. The results of the creativity need to be stored [6] in order to ensure that the solution will use them in the future [29], [5]. In this paper we propose to organize, annotate and store the ideas resulting from the creativities activities by using a semantic Wiki. Moreover in an innovation process, knowledge about the definition of the new product (problem), about the market, about the new technologies or the industrial processes and about the evolution of our cultures have to be managed to make innovation a learning and prioritization process [16]. [15]  explains that the knowledge management is a key factor of the innovation  process. In this paper we will describe how the Semantic Wiki using an innovation ontology [19] allow to develop the creativity of the engineers through idea cards and allows to build an innovative ideas base. This article is structured as follows: Section 2 introduces the Semantic Wiki concept and describes its advantages for the innovation process; Section 3 briefly describes the architecture of our Wiki; Section 4 presents a simple application scenario to exploit knowledge and to represent it; Section 5  presents the functionalities of the wiki; Section 6 shows a study case which indicate the performance assessment of our wiki and finally section 7 concludes with some perspectives. 2.   SEMANTIC WIKI FOR INNOVATION PROCESS A wiki is a web site that allows collaborative distant creation of information and editing of hypertext content. Leuf & Cunningham [14] were the first to propose a web site where people could create, modify, transform and link pages from within their browser and in a very simple way. Wikis have become popular tools for collaboration on the web [17], and many active online communities employ wikis to publish or exchange information. For most wikis, public or private, the primary goals are to organize the  collected information and to share it. Wikis are usually viewed as tools to manage online content in a quick and easy way, by editing some simple syntax known as wikitext [25]. Schaffert [23] enumerates the specifications of a wiki system:    It allows the editing via a browser;    It has a simplified wiki syntax i.e. simplified hypertext format usable  by all the internet users;    It manages a rollback mechanism i.e. it is able to versioned the changes in the content each time they are stored;    Its access is unrestricted, everybody can write in the wiki;    It manages the collaborative editing i.e. if someone create a article, everybody can extend this article;    It proposes a strong linking, all the pages of the wiki are linked with each other using hyperlinks;    It has a search function over the content of all pages stored; It allows the uploading of different content like documents, images or videos. Taking into consideration all these properties, Wikis seems as a good candidates for collaborative knowledge engineering based on Web2.0 social networks [21]. Indeed new research works [23], [28] propose wikis to exchange knowledge. Knowledge can be seen as information with an added context and value that make it usable within that very context. Knowledge can also be seen as what places someone in the position to  perform a particular task by selecting, interpreting and evaluating information depending on the context [18], [27]. However a serious obstacle for the development of Semantic Web applications is the lack of formal ontologies and knowledge. Indeed, one of the main reasons of this is the rather high technical barrier for using Semantic Web [3] technologies that deters many domain experts from formalizing their knowledge. On the other hand, wiki systems are becoming more and more popular as tools for content and information management. Much information is nowadays available in systems like Wikipedia [12], [13]. Unfortunately, this vast information is not accessible for machines. If a small amount of this information could be formalized to become knowledge, then, wiki systems could provide improved interfaces and advanced searching and navigation facilities.  Nevertheless, several analyses [4], [28] of traditional wikis as shown that they are not enough structured, and it’s difficult to navigate and to find the relevant information. Besides, the wiki markup language (WikiML) used by most wiki engines makes internet users reluctant to contribute to the wiki. One solution to perform the ideas creation, evaluation and navigation inside wikis is to use technologies from the Semantic Web [2] to formalized information, content, structures and links in the wiki pages. These Wikis  would take consideration of the semantic in their content management and  become Semantic Wikis [7], [26] . “ Semantic Wiki ”  systems aim to combine “traditional”  wiki systems with Semantic Technology. “A semantic wiki is a  system that allows collaborative authoring, editing and linking of pages, but also the authoring and adding semantics to the data on the wiki itself ” [11]. The significance of semantic wiki is that it may contain machine-readable content and structure, which will improve the possibilities to browse, query, share and reuse the knowledge. Völkel [27] list a number of requirements for semantic wikis: usability, expressiveness, flexibility, scalability, interchange and compatibility. The semantic wiki bears much potential in many application areas as Schaffert [23] lists a number of scenarios for semantic wiki: • Ontology engineering , in which domain experts and knowledge engineers working together can be supported by a semantic wiki. The experts will have an easy way to enter knowledge, they can all collaborate on working on the ontology and the knowledge can be evolutionary formalized. • Knowledge management systems  must combine content creation and easy authoring with structuring knowledge in order to retrieve related information. Traditional wikis may be used for the first aspect, while semantic wikis adds support for the latter. • Educational environments  can be supported by semantic wiki by acting as a “learning content pool” where content can be crea ted, edited and related to relevant learning material. Further, the structured and interlinked content in a semantic wiki can support self-directed learning. In our work, we are more in the case of ontology engineering. Thus we  propose to use a Semantic Innovation Wiki approach to propose a system,  based on innovation ontology, to facilitate the creativity and to formalize ideas in the innovation activities by facilitating the knowledge sharing, updating and evaluation. 3.   WIKI-I ARCHITECTURE In this section we detail the architecture of Wiki-I [20]. This architecture is defined by three layers (Fig. 1): Web Layer, Knowledge Persistent Layer and the Knowledge Base Layer. Each layer communicates with the others through a RDF flow in order to ease the knowledge diffusion.     Figure #-1. Wiki-I architecture 3.1   The Knowledge Base Layer The semantic Wiki is considered as a knowledge base. It is composed by the creation of wiki pages. The Knowledge base is built with the RDF language i.e. it is formed by annotations describing the innovation ideas, the context where was captured the idea and their authors. 3.2   The Knowledge Persistent Layer The Knowledge Persistent Layer is based on the Idea ontology proposed  by Riedl [22]. This ontology defines a vocabulary and a semantic of the knowledge used in innovation ideas. The Idea ontology is developed in OWL-DL. This language is based on Description Logics (hence the suffix DL). Description Logics are a decidable fragment of First Order Logic and are therefore amenable to automated reasoning. It is therefore possible to automatically compute the classification hierarchy and check for inconsistencies in an ontology that conforms to OWL-DL. Consequently, the Idea Ontology provides an integrated conceptual model for sharing information related to an innovative idea. An OWL property is a  binary relation that relates an OWL Class to another one, or to RDF literals
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