Attacks and improvements to an RIFD mutual authentication protocol and its extensions

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Attacks and improvements to an RIFD mutual authentication protocol and its extensions. Shanti Bramhacharya and Nick McCarty. Introduction. This paper deals with the vulnerability of RFIDs
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Attacks and improvements to an RIFD mutual authentication protocol and its extensionsShantiBramhacharya and Nick McCartyIntroduction
  • This paper deals with the vulnerability of RFIDs
  • A Radio Frequency Identifier or RFID is a small device used to claim ownership and keep track of many things, including livestock, credit cards, luggage tags, and libraries, even your Hiram ID.
  • The entire system is comprised of the tags themselves, a reader whose type depends on the application of the tag, and a server.
  • Problem
  • Since these devices need to operate rapidly and wirelessly they aren't very secure.
  • Some possible techniques of these attacks include interception, de-synchronization, impersonation, tracking, and replaying.
  • These techniques can result in a wide variety of issues ranging from denial of service to outright theft.
  • Previous Attempts
  • Song and Mitchell’s Mutual Authentication Protocol
  • Song’s Ownership Transfer Protocol
  • SM Mutual Authentication
  • Reader sends a random bit string message to a tag
  • Tag uses its own hidden value (secret ti is how they refer to it in the paper) to compute two separate return strings.
  • These return strings (M1, M2) are computed in significantly different ways from one another but they both utilize Ti and the initial random string bit
  • SM Continued
  • The value (M1, M2) is then sent to the reader
  • Reader sends along the message (r, M1, M2) to the database server with r being the reader’s randomly created string.
  • The Server then searches its database for a match and if it is found it tells the reader that yes the current tag is valid and sends all the information it has on it.
  • SM Continued
  • In addition, the server also creates a new message(M3) with the random number generator r2 that the tag used to create M1 and M2.
  • The reader then forwards M3 to the tag which uses the message to create a new secret ti so that each time a tag is identified it will mutate.
  • Song’s Ownership Transfer
  • Comprised of two parts
  • Ownership Sharing Protocol
  • Works the same as SM except for one thing
  • When a server finds a match it sends the confirm and new secret ti to two readers (Sj and Sj+1) so that two “owners” are updated.
  • Song’s Continued
  • Secret Update Protocol
  • Sj+1, in order to hide its identify from Sj, then creates a new secret ti that it updates the previously (no longer) shared tag with.
  • Sj+1 still not anonymous because Sj could derive the new ti by eavesdropping.
  • Sj+1 needs to successfully identify the tag one more time after this in order to apply a ti that was created solely within its system
  • Security ProtertiesSM
  • Tag information privacy
  • Tag location privacy
  • Resistance to tag impersonation attack
  • Resistant to replay attack
  • Resistance to denial of service attack
  • Forward and backward security
  • Resistance to server impersonation attack
  • Song
  • Old owner privacy
  • New owner privacy
  • Authorization recovery
  • Specific Problems
  • Attacks that work against SM and Song as they exist:
  • Server Impersonation(SM)
  • User impersonates a server and gains information on both readers and tags
  • Tag Impersonation(SM)
  • User impersonates a tag within a system and gains access to the algorithms that generate ti, and a platform from which many other attacks may be launched.
  • De-Synchronization(Song)
  • User intercepts the reader to server message of (r1, M1, M2) so that it does not receive the message.
  • It then impersonates reader and sends a fake (r1, M1, M2) message so that the tags ti is updated to a value that will not be recognized by the server to which it rightfully belongs.
  • Solution
  • The authors of this paper claim that the main security weaknesses in these protocols exist in their use of circular bit shifting, and xor gates.
  • SM Solution
  • M2 on the tag side utilizes a concatenation of r1 and r2 rather than an xor gate.
  • M2 on the server side utilizes a concatenation of r1 and M1 rather than an xor gate.
  • M3 uses an xor gate instead of a circular shift of k bits
  • Solution Continued
  • Song Solution
  • Takes place in the creation of a new ti by Sj+1
  • Rather than simply shifting bits to create a new server side M2, it uses a dynamic hash function
  • Instead of M2 on the tag side using a shift bit it uses an xor gate and the same hash function as prior.
  • Findings
  • F denotes a computationally complex function such as hash and key hash
  • K denotes integer between 1 and 2N
  • Reducing hash tables to reduce cost increases level of vulnerabilities
  • Investigation of lower bound remains interesting
  • Level of SuccessProof
  • Two protocols with desired security properties
  • Vulnerable to series of active attacks
  • Proposed revised protocols
  • to eliminate vulnerabilities without violation of any other security properties
  • Whose storage and computational requirements are comparable to existing solutions
  • Future work
  • Give formal proof their proposed revised protocol
  • Finding the lower bounds for tags computational requirements for secure RFID communications
  • Recommended
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