Banana Plantain Overview

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Banana and plantain—an overview with emphasis on Pacifc island cultivars Musaceae (banana family) Randy C. Ploetz, Angela Kay Kepler, Jef Daniells, and Scot C. Nelson INTRODUCTION Te plant family Musaceae, composed of ba- nanas, plantains, and ornamental bananas, originally evolved in Southeast Asia and sur- rounding tropical and subtropical regions (in- cluding New Guinea). Africa is a secondary center of diversity. Te two genera Ensete and Musa in the family Musac
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  INTRODUCTION  Te  m Mcee, cmed  b, , d rme b,rg eed  Se A d rrdg rc d brc reg (cdg New Ge). Arc   ecdr ceer  der. Te w geer Ensete  d Musa  e m Mcee re cered ere.Pee e   mcr   ce d  mc  e cmex eced cr xm   e rce  re  d ex. Reder re ecrged c w e m excee e rerce ed  e “Bbgr” r crrerm. Species Poes o Pacic Isand Agooesy  www.adiionaee.og  Febrr   er.    p  h  o  t  o  :  C .  E  l  E  v  i  t  C  h   Banana and plantain overview  Part 1: Taxa in the Musaceae  Ensete  Te ge ee rge rg Arc d erA. eedg  e r, e ge  Ensete  c m  e ece. Te re mcrc, brcederb  cker rre d re ed r d, ber, d rme. Te reembe b , b er wderedg d mmee g, ddeed ee w crm mdrb, re mkbe. Ter r remr  erce  e  b, b e re dr,eed, d edbe. Te ere  de er rg.  Ensete gilletii   (e Wd.) eem  Ensete glaucum   (Rxb.) eem. mm me: Wdb, Seeded wee b, “Vrg” b, r Vrg(Pe)Sm:  M. glauca Rxb.,  M. nepalensis Wc Rxb.,  M. troglodytarum L. r. dolioliformis F. M. Bc,  M. gigantea Kze,  M. calosperma  Meer,  M. wilsonii    cer,  E. calospermum ( Meer) eem,  E. wil-sonii  (cer) eem,  M. agharkarii  krr,  E. gigantea (Kze) . Nk,  E. nepalensis (Wc) eem, err. cal. Smmd,  E. agharkarii  (krr) Hre,Srm d Pde ecr: T ece  m,  b   er m, cmc bc,   ge bd w gree rg e brw, ere brc rdcg  “me” rcmr  dwr edbe b (r exme, ‘wr ed’, ‘Pr Añ’). Te eed re b 10 mm dmeer x 11 mm dee (0.4  x 0.43 ). Te eed re rg eckce  PNG.  Ensete homblei (Beqer) eem  Ensete perrieri   (ere) eem  Ensete superbum   (Rxb.) eem    Ensete ventricosum (Wew.) eem. mm me:e, ee, Ab b r P, ,Bck, Brce’ r wd bSm:  Musa ensete  Gme.,  M. ventricosa  Wew.,  M.buchananii  Bker,  M. schweinfurthii  Scm d Wrbrg ex Scm,  M. arnoldiana e Wd.,  M. holstii   Scm,  M. ulugurensis Wrbrg d Mrz ex Wrbrg,  M. fecunda S,  M. laurentii  e Wd.,  M. bagsha-wei  Rede d Gree,  M. davyae  S,  M. ruandensis e Wd.,  M. rubronervata e Wd.,  E. edule  Hr.,  E. bu-chanani  (Bker) eem,  E. schweinfurthii  (Scmd Wrbrg) eem,  E. arnoldianum (e Wd.)eem,  E. holstii  (Scm) eem,  E. ulugurense   (Wrbrg) eem,  E. fecundum (S) eem,  E.laurentii  (e Wd.) eem,  E. bagshawei  (Rede dGree) eem,  E. davyae  (S) eem,  E. ruan-dense  (e Wd.) eem,  E. rubronervatum (e Wd.)eem,  M. africana Hr.ecr: T  e m mr ece  e ge. Recg 5–7 m (16–23 ) ,  rge rgmc  e Arc ce, d rdce  rzme  ed   e d b rxme 8 mee  e  gd. Te re ‘Mre’,‘Red Ab’, r ‘Bck b’ (m  E. maurelii  ) e m cr, w e brge red mdrb, bed bew, w rc drk red e k (ee) dbckred e bde. I wer cer, embrced mr brc, m rec 3 m (10 ) g. Te eed rerge, b 18 mm dmeer x 14 mm dee (0.7  x 0.5). Irdced  Hw‘,   rre r  ger reeere.  Ensete ventricosum . photo: J. DaniElls    Species Profles or Pacifc Island Agroorestry ( www.traditionaltree.org)  Musa  Te ge  Musa ’ ceer  rg  A (rmr er d eer). A gre mber  mr re d  e ge; e  ber edbe r re em gc. I dd  r, b d rde m cre w medce, beerge, ber,edbe r r, de, e, em r ckg, crdge, wrg mer, ec. W ew exce, e mreg b re r ccrg brd mg e r bece   M. acuminata d erecc   brd bewee  M. acuminata d  M. balbisiana .  Musa xm  ced b eer cr cdge er, ce dmec, d brd rg  e ced ree (cr), d e wge m  d ewer, crrec me. Fr exme, Le bm c   M. paradisiaca (‘Frec’ )d  M. sapientum (‘Sk’) re  ed decde er ecr  wc ee me reer were recgzed   M.acuminata ×  M. balbisiana brd (ee Pr 2). e mmrzed e c (e, 2004).Hrc, r ec e bee recgzed  Musa ,AuSRALIMuSA, ALLIMuSA, MuSA   (rmer kw  uMuSA), d RHHLAMyS. Rece mecr e dce  redc  w ec, b mc rer d  reqred bere e beem  bded. Section  AuStrAlImuSA (chromosome nm-ber: x = 10) Seed bgbe r cmreed, m, re, berce r rregr ged.  e Fe‘ b, wcre mr  e Pcc. Ter rg re cmex dm e  m  ree ece,  M. lolodensis, M. ma-clayi  d  M. peekelii  . A cded  e ec   mr rce  ber, bcá (  M. textilis ).P  e AuSRALIMuSA ec re geer , w eeded r, d dce gree r greeew bd ( ree). Ter eed rcre  mr r cc re, z. eer bgbe r cmreed,m, re, berce, r rregr ged.Sec AuSRALIMuSA rge r rm New Ge d rer Qeed  e weer Pcc.Hweer,  rc cme, e Fe‘ b ebecme m bece  er c w FrecPe, were e were rred g dce ce b Pe erer  r bck  250 B(Mrqe Id) d er  ~800 A (). I2004, Mcre Fe‘ b ejed gg Pcc grcr crce. ‘Kr’, ‘u ’ d er b e bee w  c e g ee  becree (m A recrr).Fe‘ re rb  berg erec bce  br rgegd r, wc re dec d r webked r bed, eec  e ce re wed  recc crem. Add crcerc (   M. jack-eyi  ) re  “bd” remge  d e rdc reddmber  red re b e w cme er.  M. textilis (bcá r M em)  rcr mr  Pe cre, d   cer exe  merd d  Mcre,   rce  ber. Terce, k r (e embrdered) wr b F me  mr cc re we rm er r  bcá edem. I e er d  y,der  e dm  wee bcá ber  wme’ wrrd kr r  (re). Abcárdce  , egree bd.  M  . bukensis Arge  M  .  jackeyi    W. H. mm me: e Rer b. T    m rge  Nr Qeed, Ar.I gre reembe  Fe‘, w rg r k, Fe‘keb,  erm gree bd g kwrd, d“bd” . M be m w  M. maclayi  b .ailuluai.  M. lolodensis eemPbe recrr  e Fe‘ b. Ne  e WeSek reg  P New Ge d r  Ide.  M. maclayi  Me. ex Mk.Mc Pbe recrr  e Fe‘ b. Te r rerded, reed geer  g bce, d  me ree, r jed geer er.bece ailuluai Argebece maclayi  r. erecta (Smmd) Arge r. maclayi  r. namatani Arge  M. peekelii Lerb.   Pbe recrr  e Fe‘ b. A er  (>10 m [33 ]), w  bc  r ed w  rrw gree bd wc  ede, rer  recg kwrd.I gegrc rge cde P New Ge, d w d  e Pe (Pw)  1960. Ir   Banana and plantain overview  dced  Hw‘,  b c be ee  e WmeVe Adb eer, ‘.bece   angustigemma (Smmd) Arge Sm:  M  . angustigemma Smmdbece  peekelii    M. textilis Née. mm me: bcá, M em,mkd, mgd (Pe)Sm:  M. formosana H,  M. textilis Née. r. tashi-roi  HBere e de  ec exe,  M. textilis , w erce  e  e wrd’ remer ber—, k,geg, d eexred. I ber were  ber er mcred rdc c  r, cee,d ewr. I w ee  ce  me re er me. mmerc rdc w gree e Pe d er Amerc, b  w  bdered. Nce mrke w cer  rce wer m, c ce m, d ec er.Abcá   be,  , c  e AuSRALI-MuSA ec. Irdced  Hw‘ r cmmercre  e e 1800,   w rre. I c be d e Wme Ve Adb eer (‘) d N rc Bc Grde (K‘). Section CAllImuSA (chromosome nmber: x =10) Brc , rm,   e er rce, rre gc d rg mbrce we ced. Tee  rem mr  rme. M ber rg werk, r cred bd d wer, d m eed r.  M. alinsanaya Vmr,  . mm me: A I  gree bd de re er g, d  mr re “g beed” d eed.  M. beccarii Smmd T ece ber  rrw, ec, brg cre bd, w greeed brc. Fr re gree d k.  M. borneënsis Beccr  M. campestris Beccr  M. coccinea Adrew. mm Nme: Red (werg) T b, cre b, T red b, ccce,kw rc, kw b wer, red rmebSm:  Musa uranoscopos Lr.  Rm.,  Musauranoscopos Lr.  . T ece ber  rder red wer cer   M. bec-carii  , cmed  erec r  red brc, de wcre eced br ew wer. I rge, eeded rre m (c. 0.8 cm [2 ] g). Ne   dIdc. cc grw  Hw‘  cmmerc ec rm, eec  M d e d  Hw‘.  M. exotica   R. Vmr, . .A ece decrbed  2004,  M. exotica w rg ceced rm e c Pg Fre Reer, NB Prce, Vem. I   cer rge, rg bdd me wer, bew wc m ew b de e.  M. favida M. H  M. gracilis   HmA be  (<2 m [6.6 ] ), w rrw, mged gree red r, d  rg kre bd.Ne  M d Td.  M. salaccensis   Z. mm me: ee wd b  M. suratii G. . G. Arge  M. violascens Rde A r r rme , w me bd brc.cc d  Hw‘’ bc grde. Tece  e ced w  M. ornata . Section MuSA   ( ormer section) EuMuSA (chro-mosome nmber: x = 11) M ced ree (cr)  edbe b rged rm w ece   ec, M. acuminata d  M. balbisiana .  Musa acuminata .Sm:  M. chinensis Swee,  M. corniculata Krz,  M.rumphiana Krz,  M.   simiarum Krz A rbe ece w x  e bece, deedg e r (eg re decrbed ere). Rece geecde e deed wc bece were rbbere  me mr edbe cr wrdwde (eePr 2). Rece exed e ced  dg, zg, d emg  rec e mrd rm  ece,  e e  b breeder w be be dee mre—d beer—r  deere b. Bece  e creg cdece  debge d b dee, geer w creg wrd, breeder re exedg gre efr  deederbe eede b, be r grwg der  wde rge  erme cd d rrer m cr d reerece.  M. acuminata ’ e
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