Basic Die Making

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Basic Die Making Indira Anindita 1106015743 This article is intended to introduce basic tool making knowledge to beginner toolmakers, die maintenance technicians and press technicians. We will first define what is a stamping die and difference type of stamping dies exists in the market. Step by step introduce die component and it function and application. It will also discuss some terminologies use in the stamping industries such as cutting, forming, lancing, ironing operations etc. What Is a St
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  Basic Die Making Indira Anindita 1106015743 This article is intended to introduce basic tool making knowledge to beginner toolmakers, diemaintenance technicians and press technicians. We will first define what is a stamping die anddifference type of stamping dies exists in the market. Step by step introduce die component and itfunction and application. It will also discuss some terminologies use in the stamping industries such ascutting, forming, lancing, ironing operations etc.What Is a Stamping Die?Basically, Stamping operation is a cold-forming operation, which mean that, it runs under roomtemperature and no heat was introduced to the entire operation intentionally. However, heat is stillgenerated from friction during the punching process. As such, proper lubricant needs to be appliedduring the stamping operation to reduce heat and wear rate of die members.A stamping die is usually consists of a serious of precision punches and dies that cuts and forms sheetmetal into a desired shape or profile within a specified dimension zone. The die members (punch anddie) are typically made from special types of hardened tool steel. In some cases, die members are madeof special material called carbide to prolong tool life and enable it to runs in much higher speed. ( 800-1,500 spm in some cases)A typical die set design can be seen on Figure 1.stamping toolName of Tooling components:-1. Top Die shoe2. Top thrust plate  3. Punch holder plate or punch plate4. Punch5. Stripper backing plate ( some tools without this plate)6. Stripper plate7. Die plate8. Die backing plate9. Lower Die shoe10. Guide pillar and bushThe part that the Die produced is called a piece part (see Figure 2). Usually, a Die can produces 1 partper cycle ( Stroke ) but some Dies can produces more than one piece part per cycle and runs as fast as1500 strokes per minute with close tolerances up to +/- 0.05mm ( 0.0019 inch ).stamped componentTypes of stamping Die.There are many kinds of stamping dies exist in the market, all of which perform a few basic operations,either cutting, forming, bending, drawing or all of them. The Die can be runs manually ( manual loadingand unloading of piece part ) or automatically. The automatic Die we called a Progressive Die. Whichconsists of many operations within a Die.Cutting operation  Cutting operation is perhaps the most common operation performed in a stamping die. The componentto be cut is placing in between the punch and die. Desired shape and form is cut after two membersbypass each other. Usually, the Die is bigger than the punch to allow smooth enter of the punch. Thesizes difference between the punch and die are called the cutting clearance.Cutting clearances change with respect to the type of cutting operation being performed, the metal'sproperties, and the desired edge condition of the piece part. The cutting clearance often is expressed asa percentage of the metal's thickness. Different clearances applied to different material thickness anddifferent type of material to be punched. The most common cutting clearance used is about 5 percentper side of the metal's thickness. In general, the harder the material the bigger the cutting clearance willbe applied.Example 1. A steel sheet of 1mm thickness ( 0.0393 inch ). Cutting clearance 5%.Cutting clearance = 1mm ( 0.0393 inch ) x 0.05 = 0.05mm per side ( 0.00196 inch )Example 2. A Brass sheet of 1 mm thickness ( 0.0393 inch ). Cutting clearance = 4%Cutting clearance = 1mm ( 0.0393 inch ) x 0.04 = 0.04mm per side ( 0.0015748 inch )High punching force is needed to perform the cutting operation. In general, the punching force can becalculated as follow:-F = A X SCutting force = Area ( Perimeter of shape to be cut x thickness of material ) x Shear strength of materialNote : Shear strength = 80% of the tensile strength.   Figure 3 show you a typical example of cutting condition.1. Roll over : Plastic deformation state of material.2.Penetration : A shinning cut band at the side of cut edge and it is usually 1/3 of the total materialthickness.3. Fracture. Break off.4. Burr edge.There are still many different cutting operations, each with a special purpose and application. Somecommon one are:Trimming-The outer shape of the piece part is trim away to give the piece part the desired shape.Notching- In the progressive die, notching is applied on the outer edge of the strip, unwanted part to becut away to give the desired profile. In some cases, notching is applied in the progressive die to providea stopper for material feeding. (see Figure 5).Blanking- The term blanking is a cutting operation in stamping die to cut out the desired piece part fromthe metal strip. The dimension on the die profile is exactly the dimension of the component wanted. Thecutting clearance is applied on the punch. ( subtract 5% / side from die )
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