Chapter 2 Community Waste Management

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  1   COMMUNITY WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES   A Study on Community Waste Management Practices in Calahan, Rizal Bello, Emilio Anton T. Dela Cruz, Sidney Catherine N. Sandico, Maxine Sophiya Sta. Ana, Rainier Dominic S. Vazquez, Lorenzo Vito B. 12  –   Carvalho 9 October 2018 Submitted to Sir Roel Joe Abonal  2   COMMUNITY WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES   Chapter Two REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Introduction This review of related literature has been divided into two major themes: a) improper waste management and b) community participation. The first section provides an overview about the impact and the causes of issues regarding poor waste management. The second section discusses the existing literature regarding community attitudes and  participation as factors in approaching the problem of waste management. It also talks about incentive-based solutions as a means of promoting community participation of geared toward creating efficient waste management systems. Improper Waste Management Improper waste management creates numerous threats to human life, which will be discussed in the succeeding paragraphs:  Impact   Environmental pollution due to improperly disposed waste produced from human activity is a global issue. Land pollution in particular, is a grave threat to human health since it potentially causes emissions that pollute the air as well as contaminate soil and groundwater (Gijnovci, Musaj, Uka, & Rexhepi, 2017; Ravindra, Kaur, & Mor, 2014). Water  pollution also puts communities at risk. Plastic waste items in marine environments have adverse effects on wildlife which consequently affect humans (Jambeck, Geyer, Wilcox, Siegler, Perryman, Andrady, Narayan, & Law, 2014). These two types of pollution can create  3   COMMUNITY WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES   toxic emissions that entail massive repercussions which affect all aspects of human life  beyond health concerns, including livelihood, economic output, and more. Causes “ The lack of infrastructure for collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of solid waste, proper solid waste management planning, insufficient financial resources, technical expertise and public attitude have made the situation exasperating due to which several environmental and health related problems are increasing ” as stated in a study by Srivastrava, Ismail, Singh, P., and Singh R. in 2014 which sought to investigate India’s urban solid waste management system. According to their research, one of the main challenges regarding waste management that emerged included lack of public awareness and support. According to McAllister (2015), human behavioral issues are also a root cause of dysfunctional waste management. Community Participation  Since human communities are both the cause and the main afflicted party of the effects brought about by mismanaged waste disposal practices, it is clear that community  participation is, in fact, a core aspect of the problem. Thus, human attitudes, behaviors, and motivators should be understood and assessed in order to successfully address the matter. These will be discussed in the following paragraphs:  Attitudes toward Waste Management According to a study by Dhokhikah, Trihadiningrum, and Sunaryo in 2015, community participation is crucial in implementing efficient waste management, particularly household waste. The researchers conducted a survey which sought to determine community  4   COMMUNITY WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES   members’ knowledge and attitudes toward waste management practices  including segregation, recycling, and composting in Surabaya, Indonesia. The respondents’ answers showed that the most common reasons for failing to carry out these methods of waste reduction and disposal were due to lack of time, laziness, and insufficient knowledge about  proper waste management practices. The study aimed to determine the factors that influenced the community’s perceptions towards waste management in order to come up with solutions to address the problem. The researchers recommended waste reduction training programs and information drives in order to increase public awareness as well as individual’s willingness to employ proper household waste management. The study also proposed to increase the number of junkyards (referred to as “waste banks” in the study) since this was proven to have a positive impact on the respondents’ tendency to segregate and recycle waste due to the added incentive  of earning money in exchange for trash.  Incentive-based Strategies Used to Increase Community Participation Other researchers have also affirmed the positive impact of providing incentives in community participation. Xu, Zhou, Lan, Jin, and Cao (2015) conducted an experiment that offered incentives to residents in urban areas to see whether or not incentive-based waste management systems work in an effort to increase efficiency in waste management. A year was spent offering this program to 76 households. Results show that there was an 87.3  percent waste reduction waste in the community. In the same vein, the City of San Carlos in Negros Occidental incorporated the use of incentive-based strategies in its waste management programs. This is because San Carlos’ City Environment Management Office (CMO) recognizes that effective waste management can be achieved via the “ active involvement and participation of all stakeholders …” (2015). San Carlos City’s Ecological Solid Waste Management Plan for years 2015  –   2024
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