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Information Report



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Communication “Any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information about that person’s needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, it may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes.” Or in simple words; Communication is the exchange of ideas, opinions and information through written or spoken words, symbols
  Communication “Any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information aboutthat person’s needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communicationmay be intentional or unintentional, it may involve conventional or unconventional signals,may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes.”Or in simple words;Communication is the exchange of ideas, opinions and information through written or spoken words, symbols or actions. Communication is a dialogue, not a monologue . In fact, communication is moreconcerned with a dual listening process. For communication to be effective, the messagemust mean the same thing to both the sender and the receiver. Business Communication Business Communication is any communication used to promote a product, service, or organization – with the objective of making sale.In business communication, message is conveyed through various channels of communication including internet, print (publications), radio, television, outdoor, and wordof mouth.In business, communication is considered core among business, interpersonal skills andetiquette. Historical Background Thousands years ago, people use to communicate orally. Greeks use a phonetic alphabetwritten from left to right. After that, many books appeared on written communication principles. In a result of this, Greek started her very first library.When communism was ruling China, communication had become the biggest challengewithin the vast government as well as between government and people. 1st in China andthen in Rome postal service was launched. After that paper and printing press was inventedin china that made communication easier.Hence, today’s principles of communications are founded on a mixture of ancient oral andwritten traditions. Organization  The arrangements between individuals and groups in human society that structurerelationships and activities (Business, Political, Religious or social).In other words,A group of people identified by shared interests or purpose, for example, a “Bank”. Lifeblood of an Organization Communication is the lifeblood of an organization. If we could somehow removecommunication flows from an organization, we would not have an organization.It is needed for: ã Exchanging information ã Exchanging options ã Making plans and proposals ã Reaching agreement ã Executing decisions ã Sending and fulfilling orders ã Conducting salesWhen communication stops, organized activity ceases to exist. Individual uncoordinatedactivity returns in an organization. So, Communication in an organization, is as vital as blood for life. Types of Business Communication There are two types of business communication in an organization:1.Internal Communication2.External Communication Internal Communication Communication within an organization is called “ Internal Communication ”.It includes all communication within an organization. It may be informal or aformal function or department providing communication in various forms toemployees.Effective internal communication is a vital mean of addressing organizationalconcerns. Good communication may help to increase job satisfaction, safety, productivity, and profits and decrease grievances and turnover.  Under Internal Business Communication types there come;a) Upward Communication b) Downward Communicationc) Horizontal/Literal communication a) Upward Communication Upward communication is the flow of information from subordinates to superiors,or from employees to management. Without upward communication, managementworks in a vacuum, not knowing if messages have been received properly, or if other problems exist in the organization.By definition, communication is a two-way affair. Yet for effective two-wayorganizational communication to occur, it must begin from the bottom.Upward Communication is a mean for staff to: o Exchange information o Offer ideas o Express enthusiasm o Achieve job satisfaction o Provide feedback  b) Downward Communication Information flowing from the top of the organizational management hierarchy andtelling people in the organization what is important (mission) and what is valued(policies).Downward communication generally provides enabling information – which allowsa subordinate to do something.e.g.: Instructions on how to do a task.  Downward communication comes after upward communications have beensuccessfully established. This type of communication is needed in an organizationto: o Transmit vital information o Give instructions o Encourage 2-way discussion o Announce decisions o Seek cooperation o Provide motivation o Boost morale o Increase efficiency o Obtain feedback Both Downward & Upward Communications are collectively called “VerticalCommunication” c) Horizontal/Literal communication Horizontal communication normally involves coordinating information, and allows people with the same or similar rank in an organization to cooperate or collaborate.Communication among employees at the same level is crucial for theaccomplishment of work.Horizontal Communication is essential for: o Solving problems o Accomplishing tasks o Improving teamwork  o Building goodwill o Boosting efficiency
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