Differentiated Instruction in the Science Classroom

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Differentiated Instruction in the Science Classroom. By Millard E. Lightburn , Ph.D. District Supervisor (Science K-5) Mary Tweedy and Keisha Kidd Curriculum Support Specialists. Outcomes.
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Differentiated Instruction in the Science ClassroomByMillard E. Lightburn, Ph.D.District Supervisor (Science K-5)Mary Tweedy and Keisha Kidd Curriculum Support SpecialistsOutcomes
  • Create multiple paths so that students of different abilities, interest or learning needs experience equally appropriate ways to absorb, use, develop and present concepts as a part of the daily learning process.
  • Become familiar with a variety of instructional activities to meet individual student learning needs.
  • Establish a repertoire of teaching strategies.
  • Mathematics and ScienceKWLDIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONMaematics and ScienceWhat Is Differentiation?What differentiated instruction is NOT:What differentiated instruction IS:It is not individualized instruction (specific to the 1970's).It is not disorderly or undisciplined.It is not just modifying the instruction up or down..It is more qualitative than quantitative.It is a blend of whole-class, group and independent learning.It is continually adjusting to meet the goal of matching learner to learning.Mathematics and ScienceDifferentiated Instruction is…“A set of unique decisions that the educator makes to bring learning within the grasp of all students. Remember, this includes students who are working on grade level, below grade level, and for those students working above grade level!” Carol Tomlinson (2005)“A teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences such as readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests.” Carol A. Tomlinson (2005)It is a thoughtful PROCESS!Mathematics and ScienceWhy Differentiate?
  • All kids are different.
  • One size does not fit all.
  • Differentiation provides all students with access to all curriculum.
  • Mathematics and Science“TELL ME AND I WILL FORGET. SHOW ME AND I MAY REMEMBER. INVOLVE ME AND I WILL UNDERSTAND." -Ancient Chinese ProverbMathematics and ScienceYour Learning Style
  • Activity # 1:
  • What is your primary learning style? Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic/Tactile
  • Before doing the activity:
  • Predict your learning style
  • Predict which will be the most common learning style in the classroom.
  • Read the direction on the chart “ Learning Styles” and determine your primary learning style.
  • Mathematics and ScienceMathematics and SciencePrinciples of a Differentiated Classroom
  • All students participate in respectful work.
  • Teacher and students work together to ensure continual engagement & challenge for each learner.
  • The teacher coordinates use of time, space and activities.
  • Flexible grouping which includes whole class learning, pairs, student-selected groups, teacher selected groups, and random groups.
  • Mathematics and ScienceHow is DI Implemented?
  • Before beginning instruction, teachers should do three things:
  • Use Diagnostic assessment to determine
  • readiness (e.g. pretest, KWL)
  • Determine students interest (interest inventory)
  • Identify student learning styles and environmental preferences
  • Mathematics and Science Teachers Can DifferentiateContentProcessProductWhat is taught How it is taught How learning is assessedAccording to Students’InterestLearningProfileReadinessAdapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999).Mathematics and ScienceDI According to Students…Readiness –
  • Refers to readiness for a given skill, concept, or way of thinking.
  • Interests and Attitudes –
  • Have to do with those thingsthat learners find relevant, fascinating, or worthy of their time.
  • Learning Profile and Need –
  • Refer to things such as learning style, intelligence preferences, how the learner sees himself in relation to the rest of the world.
  • Mathematics and ScienceDiscussion QuestionWhat are you already doing to differentiate instruction in your classroom?Activity: Give One/Take OneMathematics and ScienceGive One/Take OneMathematics and Science Differentiated Instructional Strategies in the Science Classroom Within the next few slides, you will be introduced to a few differentiated instructional strategies such as…
  • Tiered lessons
  • Exit cards
  • Flexible grouping
  • Anchor activities
  • Response cards
  • Choice Board (Think-Tac-Toe boards)
  • Cubing
  • Graphic organizers
  • Remember that these are just some of the many examples of differentiated instructional strategies. Mathematics and Science1. Tiered Instruction
  • Provides teachers with a means of assigning different tasks within the same lesson or unit.
  • The tasks will vary according to the students’
  • Readiness
  • Interest
  • Learning Profile
  • Mathematics and ScienceStep 1. Identify key concepts and skills (i.e., NGSSS) WHAT SHOULD STUDENTS KNOW, UNDERSTAND, OR BE ABLE TO DO?Step 2. Think about students and/or use assessment to determine:Readiness levelInterestsLearning ProfilePlanning Tiered Activities A Four Step MethodMathematics and SciencePlanning Tiered Activities cont.Step 3. Create an activity for “on – level” learners that is…
  • Interesting
  • Challenging
  • Causes students to use key skill(s) to understand the major idea or concept.
  • Step 4. Adjust the activity accordingly. Remember…You may not need to adjust the activity if you are differentiating by interest or by learning profile. However, if you are differentiating by readiness, you will need to adjust for “struggling learners” and “highly able” learners (use Webb’s DOK).Struggling learners On-level learners Highly-able learnersAdjusting the taskMathematics and Science2. Flexible Grouping
  • Flexible grouping is an opportunity for students to work with a variety of students, through whole group or in many different forms of small groups. The key to flexible grouping is in the name… FLEXIBLE.
  • Students have the opportunity to be in different groups depending on the activity.
  • initially use the whole group for instruction
  • divide group for practice or enrichment
  • not used as a permanent arrangement
  • use groups for one activity, a day, a week, etc.
  • “Flexible grouping is the cornerstone of successful differentiated instruction”.- Carol Ann TomlinsonMathematics and Science How does flexible grouping benefit students?
  • Gives students and teachers a voice in work arrangements
  • Allows students to work with a variety of peers
  • Keeps students from being “pegged” as advanced or struggling
  • Mathematics and Science3. Anchor ActivitiesAnchor activities are ongoing assignments that students can work on independently throughout a unit, grading period, or longer.Mathematics and ScienceThe Purpose of an Anchor ActivityProvide meaningful work for students when they…
  • Finish an assignment or project
  • When they first enter the class
  • When they are “stumped”
  • Provide ongoing tasks that tie to the content and instruction.Free up the classroom teacher to work with other groups of students or individualsMathematics and ScienceSome examples of Anchor Activities
  • Brain Busters
  • Learning Packets
  • Activity Box
  • Learning / Interest Centers
  • Vocabulary Work
  • Investigations
  • FCAT Practice activities
  • Magazine articles with generic questions or activities
  • Listening stations
  • Research questions or Projects
  • Journals or Learning Logs
  • Silent Reading
  • Websites
  • 4. Exit Cards Exit Cards (AKA “Tickets out the Door”) are used to gather information on student readiness levels, interests, and/or learning profiles. They can be used as quick assessments to see if the students are “getting it”. The teacher hands out index cards to students at the end of an instructional sequence or class period. The teacher asks the students to respond to a predetermined prompt on their index cards and then turn them in as they leave the classroom or transition to another subject. The teacher reviews the student responses and separates the cards into instructional groups based on preset criteria.Mathematics and Science5. Response Cards
  • Response cards are another form of quick assessment. Each student has a card and indicates their understanding of a topic by holding up the appropriate response. Response cards:
  • Increase participation level of all students
  • Increase on-task behavior
  • Provide immediate feedback
  • Are highly motivating and fun!
  • If response cards were used instead of hand raising for just 30 minutes a day, each student would make more than 3,700 additional academic responses during the school year.Just Think... Mathematics and ScienceTypes of Response CardsPreprinted Student made Write-on white boardsMathematics and Science6. Graphic Organizers
  • Aides comprehension, concept development and learning
  • Highlights key vocabulary
  • Provides an organized, visual display of knowledge
  • Focuses attention on key elements
  • Helps integrate prior knowledge with new knowledge
  • webFlow chartMathematics and Science7. LearningContract To demonstrate what I have learned about ____________, I want to_ Write a report _ Put on a demonstration _ Set up an experiment _ Develop a computer presentation _ Build a model _Design a mural _ Write a song _ Make a movie _ Create a graphic organizer or diagram _ OtherThis will be a good way to demonstrate understanding of this concept because______________________________________________________________To do this project, I will need help with ______________________________My Action Plan is________________________________________________The criteria/rubric which will be used to assess my final product is _______________________________________________________________________My project will be completed by this date _____________________________Student signature: ________________________________ Date ___/___/___Parent signature: _________________________________ Date____/___/___Teacher signature: ________________________________ Date ___/___/___Mathematics and Science8. Cubing
  • A cube consists of 6 commands – one on each of its 6 faces followed by a prompt that describes the task the student should do.
  • Can be used to differentiate activities on the basis of student's readiness. For example, using 2 or more cubes with the same commands, modify the prompts or tasks so that they are at different levels of difficulty
  • Can be used to differentiate activities based on students’ interests or learning profiles.
  • Mathematics and ScienceChoice BoardMathematics and ScienceDinner Menu – Photosynthesis Appetizer (Everyone)
  • Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.
  • Entrée (Select One)
  • Draw a picture that shows what happens during photosynthesis.
  • Write two paragraphs about what happens during photosynthesis.
  • Create a rap that explains what happens during photosynthesis.
  • Side Dishes (Select at Least Two)
  • Define respiration, in writing.
  • Compare photosynthesis to respiration using a Venn Diagram.
  • Write a journal entry from the point of view of a green plant.
  • With a partner, create and perform a skit that shows the differences between photosynthesis and respiration.
  • Dessert (Optional)
  • Create a test to assess the student’s knowledge of photosynthesis.
  • What type(s) of differentiationcan you identify in this dinner menu. ?In my Differentiated Classroom
  • Everyone will feel welcomed
  • Mutual respect will be non-negotiable
  • Students will feel physical, mental and emotional safety
  • There will be a persuasive expectation of growth
  • I will teach for success
  • A new sort of fairness will be evident and accepted
  • We will collaborate for mutual growth and success
  • Mathematics and ScienceWe are for difference,for respecting difference,for valuing difference,until difference no longer makes a difference.Mathematics and Science
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