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TVP – TITLE – DOCUMENTARY HOSPITAL WASTE MANAGEMENT HOSPITAL WASTE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS CONCEPT – DESCRIPTION – STORY: - One fine morning Mr. Thomas (social worker) in his morning walk passing through an hospital, he saw two children(5-6 yrs) playing with empty syringes, immediately he went near the children and asked from where they got this syringe. They showed the garbage inside the hospital with wired fence. When he looked at it he shocked. He saw piles of hospital waste poured out t
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  TVP  –   DOCUMENTARY TITLE  –   HOSPITAL WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT  –   HOSPITAL WASTE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS   DESCRIPTION  –   STORY: - One fine morning Mr. Thomas (social worker) in hismorning walk passing through an hospital, he saw two children(5-6 yrs) playing withempty syringes, immediately he went near the children and asked from where theygot this syringe. They showed the garbage inside the hospital with wired fence.When he looked at it he shocked. He saw piles of hospital waste poured out therelike heap of garbage. He immediately snatched the syringes from the kids and warnsthem. He wants to bring this issue to the concern authorities how hazardous thishospital waste to the human society. He writes to concern authorities about thehospital waste and environmental hazards. Letter follows as TO SUPERINTENDED,GOVT. HOSPITAL,CHENNAI.RESPECTED SIR/MADAM, The hospitals are known for the treatment of sick persons but weare unaware about the adverse effects of the garbage and filth generated by themon human body and environment. Now it is a well established fact that there aremany adverse and harmful effects to the environment including human beings whichare caused by the Hospital waste generated during the patient care. Hospital wasteis a potential health hazard to the health care workers, public and flora and fauna of the area. Increasing land and water pollution lead to increasing possibility of catchingmany diseases. Hospital waste and the diseases transmitted through improperdisposal of hospital waste. This problem has now become a serious threat for thepublic health and, ultimately, the Central Government had to intervene for enforcingproper handling and disposal of hospital waste and an act was passed in July 1996and a bio-medical waste (handling and management) rule was introduced in 1998.  # Some highlights which i am bringing for your consideration for betterment of hospital waste management.What is hospital waste? Hospital waste refers to all waste generated, discarded and not intended forfurther use in the hospital. Classification of hospital waste  (1) General waste: Largely composed of domestic or house hold typewaste. It is non-hazardous to human beings, e.g. kitchen waste,packaging material, paper, wrappers, and plastics.(2) Pathological waste: Consists of tissue, organ, body part, humanfoetuses, blood and body fluid. It is hazardous waste.(3) Infectious waste: The wastes which contain pathogens in sufficientconcentration or quantity that could cause diseases. It is hazardous e.g.culture and stocks of infectious agents from laboratories, waste fromsurgery, waste srcinating from infectious patients.(4) Sharps: Waste materials which could cause the person handling it, acut or puncture of skin e.g. needles, broken glass, saws, nail, blades, andscalpels.(5) Pharmaceutical waste: This includes pharmaceutical products, drugs,and chemicals that have been returned from wards, have been spilled,are outdated, or contaminated.(6) Chemical waste: This comprises discarded solid, liquid and gaseouschemicals e.g. cleaning, housekeeping, and disinfecting product.(7) Radioactive waste: It includes solid, liquid, and gaseous waste that iscontaminated with radionucleides generated from in-vitro analysis of body tissues and fluid, in-vivo body organ imaging and tumourlocalization and therapeutic procedures. Amount and composition of hospital waste generated inIndia - 1.5(kg/bed/day)  Approach for hospital waste management   Based on Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1998, notifiedunder the Environment Protection Act by the Ministry of Environment and Forest(Government of India). 1. Segregation of waste  Segregation is the essence of waste management and should be done at thesource of generation of Bio-medical waste e.g. all patient care activity areas,diagnostic services areas, operation theatres, labour rooms, treatment rooms etc.The responsibility of segregation should be with the generator of biomedical wastei.e. doctors, nurses, technicians etc. (medical and paramedical personnel). Thebiomedical waste should be segregated as per categories mentioned in the rules. 2. Collection of bio-medical waste  Collection of bio-medical waste should be done as per Bio-medical waste(Management and Handling) Rules. At ordinary room temperature the collectedwaste should not be stored for more than 24 hours. Type of container and colour code for collection of bio-medical waste.   Category   Waste class   Type of container   Colour  1. Human anatomicalwastePlastic Yellow2. Animal waste -do- -do-3. Microbiology andBiotechnology waste-do- Yellow/Red4. Waste sharp Plastic bag punctureproof containersBlue/WhiteTranslucent5. Discarded medicinesand Cytotoxic wastePlastic bags Black6. Solid (biomedicalwaste)-do- Yellow7. Solid (plastic) Plastic bag punctureproof containersBlue/WhiteTranslucent8. Incineration waste Plastic bag Black9. Chemical waste(solid)-do- -do-  3. Transportation  Within hospital, waste routes must be designated to avoid the passage of waste through patient care areas. Separate time should be earmarked fortransportation of bio-medical waste to reduce chances of its mixing with generalwaste. Desiccated wheeled containers, trolleys or carts should be used to transportthe waste/plastic bags to the site of storage/ treatment.Trolleys or carts should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected in the event of any spillage. The wheeled containers should be so designed that the waste can beeasily loaded, remains secured during transportation, do not have any sharp edgesand is easy to clean and disinfect. Hazardous biomedical waste needing transport toa long distance should be kept in containers and should have proper labels. Thetransport is done through desiccated vehicles specially constructed for the purposehaving fully enclosed body, lined internally with stainless steel or aluminium toprovide smooth and impervious surface which can be cleaned. The drivers’  compartment should be separated from the load compartment with a bulkhead. Theload compartment should be provided with roof vents for ventilation. 4. Treatment of hospital waste  Treatment of waste is required:    To disinfect the waste so that it is no longer the source of infection.    To reduce the volume of the waste.    Make waste unrecognizable for aesthetic reasons.    Make recycled items unusable. 4.1 General waste  The 85% of the waste generated in the hospital belongs to this category. The,safe disposal of this waste is the responsibility of the local authority. 4.2 bio-medical waste: 15% of hospital waste      Deep burial: The waste under category 1 and 2 only can be accordeddeep burial and only in cities having less than 5 lakh populations.     Autoclave and microwave treatment  Standards for the autoclaving andmicrowaving are also mentioned in the Biomedical waste(Management and Handling) Rules 1998. All equipmentinstalled/shared should meet these specifications. The waste undercategory 3,4,6,7 can be treated by these techniques. Standards for theautoclaving are also laid down.
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