Dolmens and Dinosaurs

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Taking another look at dolmens around the world as potential 'safe-rooms' that may have been used as a defensive measure against some very aggressive carnivorous predators.
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  Dolmens Around the World (A section from the chapter "Dinosaurs in the Historical Record" from my upcoming book "Earth Epochs".   Every photo in this section is copied from Wikipedia or Wikimedia Commons and is in the public domain and used with permission.   In the previous sections of this chapter, we have established a reasonable amount of evidence to support the fact that some mid-range dinosaurs including T-Rex and flyers like Pteranodon survived at least up into the early to mid-late Holocene in various places in the world, let’s take another look at dolmens around the world as potential 'safe-rooms' that may have been used as a defensive measure against some very aggressive carnivorous predators.   This photo is licensed under the Wikimedia "Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported" license. Used with permission and/or used under 'public domain' and 'fair use' policies due to the nature and content of this book being research and education material.   Dolmens, in certain locations around the world are a lot more plentiful than any other megalithic structure. They are seen in European megalithic cultures densely clustered along the east coast of the Atlantic. Western European dolmens and megalithic culture are centered around France, extending to Portugal and Spain on the south, and to the British Isles on the west. They are found in Corsica, Sardinia, Provence (southern France), the southeastern peninsula of Italy, Algeria (northern Africa), and Syria (eastern Mediterranean). Along the Black sea, dolmens are densely clustered in Caucasia, Russia. In Asia, dolmens are mostly found around the Indo-Pacific region, including India, Indonesia, Vietnam, Taiwan, China, Japan, and Korea. In South Korea, for example, there are more than 35,000 dolmens, about 40% of all the known dolmens in the world. In Northeast Asia, dolmens are clustered in the Korean Peninsula, northwestern Kyushu (Japan), and Zhejiang and Liaoning Provinces (China). In China, about 50 dolmens are found in Zhejiang Province and about 700 dolmens in Liaoning Province. In Japan, about 600 dolmens are clustered in Kyushu, near the Korean Peninsula, including Nagasaki, Saga, and Fukuoka.    This photo is licensed under the Wikimedia "Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported" license. Used with permission and/or used under 'public domain' and 'fair use' policies due to the nature and content of this book being research and education material.   There are scattered stone burrows in New England that are not classic dolmens, though they may have served the same purpose. There is one dolmen in Brazil, but other than that, it is generally not known in the Americas in the same configuration as discussed in this chapter for Europe and Asia.   It remains unclear when, why, and by whom the earliest dolmens were made. The oldest known dolmens are in Western Europe, where they were set in place around 7000 years ago. The oldest dolmens in the Far East are also dated to about the same time. Archaeologists still do not know who erected these dolmens, which makes it difficult to know why they did it. They are generally all regarded as tombs or burial chambers, despite the absence of clear evidence for this. Human remains, sometimes accompanied by artifacts, have been found in or close to the dolmens which could be scientifically dated. However, it has been impossible to prove that these archaeological remains date from the time when the stones were srcinally set in place.   There are four general styles, although each style provide many different and varied characteristics, probably based on local custom and design, as well defensive needs.      The above four photos are licensed under the Wikimedia "Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported" license. Used with permission and/or used under 'public domain' and 'fair use' policies due to the nature and content of this book being research and education material.   The following photos of dolmens from around the world have similar characteristics that might point to particular type use as security and defense against different type predators. The one common characteristic on all four types is the very large and very heavy cover or table top roof. Almost always the stone is a single slab, or in the case of long burrows, several very heavy stone slabs. If form follows function, the slab stone 'roof' top indicates predator attacks are from the top down. This photo is licensed under the Wikimedia "Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported" license. Used with permission and/or used under 'public domain' and 'fair use' policies due to the nature and content of this book being research and education material.   This dolmen is among a group that are near the Zhane River in the Caucasus. It has a secret entrance in the rear and a false facade in the front.   The slab setting on stone posts or menhirs do not seem to have much protection from a ground attack, so the natural instinct is to assume the predator in that instance is a very large flyer that couldn't or didn't 'land' to attack, but caught its victims 'on the fly'. When the flyers were seen, everyone scurried to the nearest shelter until the predators passed.      This photo file is licensed under the Wikimedia "Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported" license. Used with permission and/or used under 'public domain' and 'fair use' policies due to the nature and content of this book being research and education material. It was taken by Steve46814 in 2006   This dolmen is one of the many on the South Korean Peninsula. To survive upright after several thousand years is a testament to how well built and balanced this particular dolmen is. This is a northern style dolmen from Chukrimri, Gochang, Jeolla-bukdo, South Korea   This photo file is licensed under the Wikimedia "Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported" license. Used with permission and/or used under 'public domain' and 'fair use' policies due to the nature and content of this book being research and education material. It was taken by Steve46814 in 2006    The above is one of the dolmens at the Gochang Jungnim-ri Dolmens that are centered in Maesan village, Gochang County, North Jeolla province in South Korea. This dolmen seems to serve a completely different purpose than the one above it. This one appears as a defense from a large ground predator, probably with a large neck and head that could not enter the small opening, and was not strong enough to move the oversized slab rock top.   This photo file is licensed under the Wikimedia "Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported" license. Used with permission and/or used under 'public domain' and 'fair use' policies due to the nature and content of this book being research and education material. It was taken by Steve46814 in Sept, 2009 This is one of the dolmens at the Gochang Jungnim-ri Dolmens that are centered in Maesan village, Gochang County, North Jeolla province in North Korea. Here again, the top slab seems to be a protective mechanism against an attack from above. The predator could not get its probably long neck and large head down far enough to attack under the slab. The sheer weight of the top slab, and the effort required to place and balance it precisely on top of its stone legs is at the least a difficult task. The weight of the slab displays in mute detail the strength of the attacker.   This photo file is licensed under the Wikimedia "Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported" license. Used with permission and/or used under 'public domain' and 'fair use' policies due to the nature and content of this book being research and education material. It was taken by Kussy in Sept, 2006
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