Forensic Science

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Forensic Science. Introduction. History of Forensic Science. A Brief History of Forensics . Sir Arthur Conan Doyle – 19 th century (1800’s ) author of Sherlock Holmes First to apply serology , ballistics , fingerprinting , document analysis to investigations.
Forensic ScienceIntroductionHistory of Forensic ScienceA Brief History of Forensics Sir Arthur Conan Doyle –
  • 19th century (1800’s)
  • author of Sherlock Holmes
  • First to apply serology,
  • ballistics, fingerprinting, document analysis to investigationsMathieu Orfila (1787-1853)
  • “father of forensic toxicology”
  • Studied poisons
  • “In 1840, Marie LaFarge was tried for the murder of her husband using arsenic. Mysteriously, although arsenic was available to the killer and was found in the food, none could be found in the body. Orfila was asked by the court to investigate. He discovered that the test used, the Marsh Test, had been performed incorrectly, and that there was in fact arsenic in the body, allowing LaFarge to be found guilty.”Marie LaFargeAlphonse Bertillon (1853-1914)
  • 1stscientific system of personal
  • identification
  • Anthropometry
  • (body measurements)
  • “Father of criminal identification”
  • Francis Galton (1822-1911)
  • 1stdefinitive study of fingerprints and classification
  • Classification system still in use today
  • Colonel Calvin Goddard (1891-1955)
  • Established a crime detection laboratory at Chicago’s Northwestern University in 1929
  • Perfected the comparison microscope for bullet and cartridge case examinations
  • Osborn (1858-1946) Developed fundamentalprinciples of document analysis Hans Gross
  • A magistrate and law professor in Austria
  • Known for his publications and for introducing the word “criminalistics”
  • In 1893, published a Handbook for Magistrates that greatly influenced the practice of criminal investigations
  • Edmond Locard (1877-1966)
  • Set up crime labs in France
  • “Every contact leaves a trace” When a criminal comes in contact with an object or a person, a cross-transfer of evidence occurs What does it mean?'Wherever he steps, whatever he touches, whatever he leaves, even unconsciously, will serve as a silent witness against him. Not only his fingerprints or his footprints, but his hair, the fibers from his clothes, the glass he breaks, the tool mark he leaves, the paint he scratches, the blood or semen he deposits or collects. All of these and more, bear mute witness against him. This is evidence that does not forget. It is not confused by the excitement of the moment. It is not absent because human witnesses are. It is factual evidence. Physical evidence cannot be wrong, it cannot perjure itself, it cannot be wholly absent. Only human failure to find it, study and understand it, can diminish its value.’ -Professor Edmond LocardJ. Edgar Hoover (1895-1972)
  • Was head of the FBI
  • 1932- organized a national crime laboratory
  • Set up forensic services to all parts of United States
  • “Forensic Science”Let’s break down the 2 words
  • Science–
  • organized way of using evidence to explain the natural world
  • Forensics –
  • refers to legal matters or is related to the courtsWhat is forensic science?Application of a broad spectrum of sciences in regards to the legal systemLegal system includes:Criminal courts & civil courtsWhat is the difference?Criminalisticsis just a fancy term forforensic sciencelet’s talk about Thereading!Suffolk County Medical Examiner’s Office (& Crime Lab)“The Office of the Suffolk County Medical Examiner is a Division of the Department of Health Services. The 85,000 square foot facility is physically located in Hauppauge in the North County Complex off of Veterans Memorial Highway. The Division is comprised of the Pathology, Toxicology, and Crime Laboratory Sections.” SCME
  • Yes, we live in Suffolk County
  • Case load for one day
  • In Suffolk, there is a chief M.E. and 4 M.E.sPathology
  • The medical specialty that deals with disease and the bodily changes caused by disease
  • “The Pathology Section investigates about 4500 deaths per year and performs about 900 autopsies per year. The Forensic Medical Investigators are all Registered Physician Assistants, and the Pathologists are fulltime Medical Examiners.” SCMEMedical ExaminerWho is thisM.E.?
  • Is a licensed physician
  • Graduation from medical school
  • Completion of residency in pathology
  • Fellowship in forensic pathology
  • “The above training requires about 9 years to finish. For example, if you graduate with an undergraduate degree at 22, you should be finishing the above training by age 31.” Collin
  • PEOPLE IN THE NEWS Dr. Michael M. Baden is a renowned pathologist and was the Chief Medical Examiner in NY City and for Suffolk County. Dr. Baden was on the panel that investigated the assassinations of president John F. Kennedy and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. He has been involved as an expert in forensic pathology in many cases of international interest including:
  • The remains of Tsar Nicholas of Russia and his family
  • The Claus Von Bulow murder trial
  • Expert witness for the defense in the O.J. Simpson trial
  • Re-autopsy of Medgar Evers, Civil Rights leader
  • Re-examination of the Lindberg Kidnapping and murder
  • Autopsies of the victims of TWA Flight 800
  • Dr. Baden is the host of HBO’sAutopsy series and is featured on many of the crime talk shows.Functions of the M.E.
  • 1)
  • Time of Death
  • (Body temperature, stomach contents, insects)
  • 2)
  • Cause of Death
  • (gunshot, broken neck, poisoning, disease, etc.)
  • 3)
  • Manner of Death
  • (Homicide, suicide, accidental, natural)
  • Reportable Cases All Sudden Deaths!“By law, the Medical Examiner must be notified of any death which occurs suddenly and unexpectedly while the victim is in apparent good health, or whenever there is a suspicion that the death may be unnatural. Also reportable are deaths which occur in the workplace, and cases of public health interest (e.g. suspected but undiagnosed possible tuberculosis, meningococcemia, anthrax, tuleremia, etc.).” SCME What might this be used for?TOOLSOFTHETRADEAutopsy
  • Dead body is now a piece of evidence
  • M.E. examines the body externally and internally (usually 1 to 1.5 hours)
  • 10 myths about the medical examiner’s office (courtesy of S.C. Chief Medical Examiner)
  • 1) Medical examiner is a coroner
  • 2) All deaths in Suffolk are reported
  • 3) Only violent deaths are investigated
  • 4) All bodies that come in are autopsied
  • (4,537-1,000)
  • 5) Each medical examiner gets assigned 1
  • body per week10 myths about the medical examiner’s office (courtesy of S.C. Chief Medical Examiner)
  • 6) Each medical examiner has 1 assistant
  • 7) Our “patients” do not talk to us
  • 8) Examination of the body tells you
  • everything you need to know
  • 9) Autopsy interferes with viewing at the
  • wake and will cause a delay
  • 10) M.E.s are emotionally imbalanced,
  • demoralized, and depressed a lot Coroner vs. Medical Examiner
  • Coroner -
  • Elected official
  • May not have medical background
  • Can call on a specialist
  • Medical Examiner-
  • Specialist (Licensed Pathologist)
  • Appointed
  • Forensic Science SpecialtiesForensic Pathology:
  • Pathology is a specialty area of medicine
  • Pathology is the study of diseases and the bodily changes caused by the diseases
  • Forensic pathologists determine the cause of death (the medical reason why a person died; e.g. asphyxiation)
  • Forensic pathologists determine the manner of death (the circum-stances causing death; e.g. homicide)
  • Forensic Science SpecialtiesForensic Entomology:
  • Entomology is a branch of biology devoted to the study of insects
  • Forensic entomologists use insects as investigative aids
  • By examining insects, larvae or pupae associated with a corpse, knowing the life cycle of insects, and by using the existing environmental factors, forensic entomologists can estimate the time of death
  • Forensic Science SpecialtiesForensic Odontology:
  • Odontology is the study of the physiology, anatomy, and pathology of teeth
  • Forensic odontologists perform two types of analyses involving the human dentition
  • Identify human remains by comparing premortem and postmortem dental X-rays
  • Bite mark comparisons (crime scene marks to known bite marks)
  • PLEASE BRUSH YOUR TEETHForensic Science SpecialtiesForensic Anthropology:
  • Anthropology is the science of the human skeleton and how it has evolved over time
  • Forensic Science SpecialtiesForensic Toxicology:
  • Forensic toxicology is the study of the effects of extraneous materials such as poisons and drugs in the body
  • Forensic toxicologists must determine both the presence and the amounts of extraneous materials in the body
  • Assist the medical examiners in determining the cause of death
  • May be involved in the determination of ethanol levels in blood and breath samples
  • Forensic Science SpecialtiesForensic Serology - analysis of bodily fluidsFingerprints -analysis of friction ridge patternsForensic Science SpecialtiesFirearms Analysis -gun & bullet comparisons, GSRDo you want to see chicks with guns?OH NO!PETE IS THAT YOU?Forensic Science SpecialtiesQuestioned Documents -investigations into the authenticity of documentsForensic Science SpecialtiesForensic Computer Science:
  • Use information located on computers and other electronic devices as investigative aids
  • Find hidden or deleted information to determine if internet based crimes have been committed
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