i Eom Bio Ethanol From Landfill Waste

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  See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325947038 Bio ethanol Production from the Landfill Organic Waste Fraction Conference Paper  · July 2018 CITATIONS 0 READS 89 3 authors , including: Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: Biological wastewater treatment   View projectValue addition of waste biomass   View projectMercy ManyuchiUniversity of Johannesburg 121   PUBLICATIONS   211   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE Charles MbohwaUniversity of Johannesburg 358   PUBLICATIONS   850   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE All content following this page was uploaded by Mercy Manyuchi on 23 June 2018. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.  Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Paris, France, July 26-27, 2018 Bio ethanol Production from the Landfill Organic Waste Fraction M.M. Manyuchi BioEnergy and Environmental Technology Center, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, South Africa Department of Chemical and Processing Engineering, Manicaland State University of Applied Sciences, Zimbabwe mercy.manyuchi@gmail.com   C.Mbohwa BioEnergy and Environmental Technology Center, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, South Africa cmbohwa@uj.ac.za  E.Muzenda BioEnergy and Environmental Technology Center University of Johannesburg, South Africa Department of Chemical, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, P Bag 16, Palapye, Botswana emuzenda@uj.ac.za  Abstract Landfill organic waste fraction was investigated for the potential to generate bio ethanol, a liquid bio fuel that can be used in place of the conventional liquid fuels. This was achieved through acid treatment enzymatic hydrolysis. The organic fraction waste was first pre-treated with dilute sulphuric acid at 121 °C for 15 minutes. Afterwards it underwent enzymatic hydrolysis at 50 °C for a period of 5 days to allow the release of C6 sugars. The hydrolysate was then fermented at 30 °C for 5 days with yeast inoculated as the  bio catalyst to produce bio ethanol. Enzymatic hydrolysis and the prior pre-treatment resulted in a high yield of 60% of the C6 sugars. The bio ethanol produced from the fermentable sugars was 40%. There is  potential for utilization of the organic municipal waste fraction for bio fuels production. Keywords : Bio ethanol, fermentation, landfill waste, organic waste fraction   1.Introduction In Southern Africa, huge amounts of organic waste are being generated on a daily basis and these usually find themselves to the landfills facility, possibly shortening the life span of landfills if not properly managed (Manyuchi et al., 2017). In addition, the organic fraction of the municipal waste poses a challenge for green house gases emissions if left to rot, effectively resulting in climate change effects (Matsakas et al., 2014). The organic fraction of the municipal waste is a potential raw material for production of solids and liquid bio fuels such as biomass briquettes,  biogas, bio hydrogen, bio diesel and bio ethanol (Saka et al., 2012; Shruti at el., 2016). Figure 1 shows the bio conversion potential of the organic fraction of landfill waste to bio fuels. © IEOM Society International 1  Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Paris, France, July 26-27, 2018 Figure 1. Conversion of municipal bio waste to bio fuels (Karmee and Liu., 2012) The adoption and usage of the organic fraction of the food waste has potential to replace the conventional coal which is normally used as a fuel source due to the various bio fuels produced (Adeniyi et al., 2007; Nair et al., 2016). Figure 2 shows the various biochemical production pathways for bio fuels from organic waste. Figure 2. Biochemical pathways for bio fuels production from landfills organic fraction (Nwobi et al., 2013) Enzymatic hydrolysis has been recommended for the hydrolysis of organic waste during bio ethanol production to sugars as this increase the amount of sugars that will be available for fermentation (Nair et al., 2016). This study focused on the potential of producing bio ethanol using enzymatic hydrolysis from the organic fraction at the landfills as a way of harnessing value from bio waste. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1   Materials The organic fraction of municipal waste was obtained from a local landfill. Dilute sulphuric acid was used in the pre-treatment stage of the waste. 250 mL flasks were used in the pre-treatment phase. Fermentation was done in a 5L © IEOM Society International 2  Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Paris, France, July 26-27, 2018  bioreactor. A model YP-2378 P1 sugar analyzer was used to quantify the amount of sugars in the hydrolyzed sample. Yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) was used as the fermentation media bio catalyst. 2.2   Methods A sample of 150g of the organic fraction of the municipal waste was first analyzed for its composition using standard methods (Zheng et al., 2009). The organic fraction waste then subjected to acid treatment with sulphuric acid to make the biodegradable waste more available to enzymatic hydrolysis at 121 °C for a period of 15 minutes (Shruti et al., 2016). Afterwards the pre-treated organic waste was subjected to an enzymatic hydrolysis process with cellulase (1%),  protease (0.2%), amylase (1%), lipase (0.2%), pectate lyase (1%) and hemicelluloses (0.2%) which was conducted at 50 °C for 5 days. After the hydrolysis process, the hydyosate went under a cooling process then fermentation was allowed to occur at 30 °C and pH of 5 for 5 days. 20 g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  (yeast) was used as the fermentation bio catalyst due to its low cost and availability. After fermentation the bio ethanol was distilled so as to achieve 95% purity. The amount of C6 sugars produced was determined after every 24 hours using an automatic analyser. The fermented sugars were also taken for bio ethanol concentration analysis every 24 hours using specific gravity methods. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1   Characterization of the organic fraction of the landfill waste Characterization of the organic fraction of the landfill waste was essential so as to see the amount of sugars and cellulose that could be hydrolyzed then fermented to bio ethanol. The organic fraction had an average of 33.6% soluble matter, glucose content of 42% before hydrolysis, cellulose content of 18.6% and ash content of 11.2% (see Table 1). These characteristics were key indicators that the organic waste fraction is an ideal raw material for bio ethanol  production. The low ash content was an indicator that there is a high potential for the organic waste to be converted to the bio ethanol instead of the residue during fermentation. A summary of the bio ethanol process is given in Figure 3. Figure 3. Bio ethanol production process from organic waste fraction © IEOM Society International 3
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