LMS implementation & e-learning maturity: Are we there yet?

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LMS implementation & e-learning maturity: Are we there yet?. Presented by Irina Elgort. 28 September, 2005. Presentation structure. Models of diffusion of innovations and studies of e-learning adoption Adoption of LMS and e-learning maturity Teachers’ adoption decisions
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LMS implementation & e-learning maturity: Are we there yet?Presented byIrina Elgort28 September, 2005Presentation structure
  • Models of diffusion of innovations and studies of e-learning adoption
  • Adoption of LMS and e-learning maturity
  • Teachers’ adoption decisions
  • Professional development for e-learning
  • Further direction in the LMS design
  • Diffusion of innovations
  • Rogers’ Model
  • Diffusion of innovations
  • Categories of adopters
  • Moore’s Model
  • Adoption of high tech innovations
  • Marketing of innovations
  • Adopter categoriesEarlyMajority34%LateMajority34%EarlyAdopters13.5%Laggards16%Innovators 2.5%based on Rogers, 1995: 262Moore’s model of adoptionchasmEarlyMajority - PragmaticsLateMajority -ConservativesEarlyAdopters - VisionariesLaggards - Die-hardsInnovatorsbased on Moore, 1999: 17E-learning adoption
  • FLLinNZ study 2004-5
  • 22 universities (NZ, Australia, UK) - all had one or more LMS
  • Over the initial stages of LMS adoption
  • NZ Universities
  • 100% of Universities use an LMS
  • over 40% of courses in 4 Universities
  • UK JISC & UCISA Study 2003
  • 86% of HE Institutions use a VLE
  • NZ ITP Study (Mitchell et al., 2005)
  • 18 ITP with 100% use an LMS
  • Australian NCODE survey 2002
  • 33 Universities used an LMS
  • Are we there yet?
  • LMS is now a widely adopted technology in the tertiary sector.
  • The main context of LMS is teaching and learning (cf. MLE, CMS or ERP).
  • Tutors’ utilisation of LMS is highly correlated with their levels of adoption of e-learning.
  • Does the high levels of adoption of ICT tools (LMS, in particular) in tertiary courses mean that e-learning is close to fulfilling its potential in the tertiary sector?E-learning adoption studiesFLLinNZ project interviews showthe majority of e-learning specialists interviewed were concerned about often poorly thought through approaches to using Learning Management Systems.1. Enhancement to traditional course configurationsTime2. New course management tools3. Imported learning objects4. New course configurationsStage of innovation E-learning Adoption CycleE-learning adoption studiesE-learning Adoption Cycles
  • Enhancement to traditional course/programme configuration
  • New course management tools (course management systems)
  • Imported course objects
  • New course/programme configuration - faculties and their institutions re-engineer teaching and learning activities to take full and optimal advantage of the new technology
  • (Zemsky and Massy,2004) E-learning adoption studiesNew Zealand Studies
  • Report on the E-Learning Maturity Model Evaluation of the New Zealand Tertiary Sector.
  • Marshall, 2005
  • Investigation into the Factors Affecting Teaching Staff’s Adoption of Web-Based Teaching in Higher Education.
  • Butson, in progressDiscovering the e-learning chasm…E-learning chasm The e-learning innovation as a multidimensional process located in two planes:
  • the plane of technology
  • the plane of pedagogy (or teaching and learning).
  • E-learning innovationsCumulative number of adoptersCumulative number of adoptersTimeTimeTeaching and Learning InnovationE-learning Technology InnovationE-Learning InnovationE-learning innovationsCumulative number of adoptersE-learning Technology InnovationTeaching and Learning InnovationTimeAdopted E-learning TechnologiesTeaching & Learning InnovationAvailable E-learning TechnologiesE-learningE-learning maturity characteristics
  • learning activities designed to take full and optimal advantage of the new technology
  • teachers value the learning management approach, as opposed to the academic expert one
  • new roles for teachers and students
  • independent learning is encouraged
  • active learning
  • learner freedom to pursue topics of interest
  • learning objectives and tasks are negotiated
  • opportunities for reflective learning
  • use of formative assessment
  • Teacher and Learner RoleStudent RolesFaculty Roles
  • Apprentice
  • Builder
  • Listener
  • Mentor
  • Peer teacher
  • Publisher
  • Team member
  • Writer
  • Architect
  • Consultant
  • Expert
  • Guide
  • Lecturer
  • Resource
  • Reviewer
  • Role model
  • Oblinger, 2005Challenges of e-learning
  • personal theories about teaching are formed early in life (often implicitly), and do not change easily
  • (Kember, 1997; Ramsden, 2003)
  • teachers use ICT tools only if they are aligned with their beliefs about teaching, and in the way that aligns with these beliefs
  • (Robertson, 2004)
  • teachers continue to teach in the way they always taught, whether in the context of e-learning or not
  • (Zemsky & Massy, 2004)
  • the majority of teachers tend to prefer to use a variation of a teacher-centred model
  • (Scrimshaw, 2004) PD for e-learningPD has a crucial role to play in achieving e-learning maturity:
  • Create opportunities for teachers to articulate personal beliefs about teaching and learning
  • Assist with evaluating e-learning needs
  • Broaden teachers expectations about e-learning in a pragmatic way
  • Enable teachers to construct better e-learning environments
  • Recommendations
  • Integrated approach to PD for e-learning
  • Initial PD for e-learning interventions should take place outside the context of the University LMS
  • Academic developers need to assume the role of flexible learning advisers, as and when required
  • The “scholarship of teaching” approach to using e-learning environments
  • Direction in the LMS design
  • Enable learning activities designed to take full and optimal advantage of the new technology
  • Develop technologies that enable teacher and learners to take full advantage of pedagogical innovation
  • Enable the adoption of the learning centred approach to teaching (when teachers are ready for it)Pedagogical FrameworkPrimary aims for using LMS
  • Enhance the quality of teaching and learning by allowing teachers to use pedagogies that are not possible with large numbers in a face to face environment.
  • Manage the delivery and administration of programmes of learning through an electronic on-line medium.
  • Britain and Liber, 2004LMS success stories
  • high numbers of students in HE (Oblinger, 2005)
  • access to HE: 60% in the developed countries
  • projected needs: 160 million in 2025
  • larger numbers of students per course
  • limitations of the physical space
  • complexity in enrolment, course and learning administration
  • complexity related to time and location constraints
  • multitude of systems
  • LMS are making good progress in meeting the second goal: resolving complexity in the HE sector through attenuation. Future success stories ?LMS are starting to move toward an amplification approach to resolving complexity in the field of HE
  • Resource negotiation
  • Adaptation
  • Self organisation
  • Monitoring
  • Individualisation
  • Learning centred approaches to teaching require technologies that support the amplification route.Self Organisation
  • What can students do on their own, without the teacher involvement?
  • What opportunities are there for students to
  • self-organise into study groups based on
  • background knowledge and skills
  • topics of interest
  • initiate interactions
  • self-select into discussion / reflection / project groups
  • self-select for peer-work, peer-assessment, peer-reviewing)
  • Learning space… certain kinds of spaces make it too easy to teach by “delivery” - broadcasting knowledge from the instructor’s mouth towards the student’s brain - while making it awkward to teach in ways that, research suggests, can produce deeper, more lasting learning.Long & Ehrmann, 2005thinking/converging (deliberating)designing (putting structure to idea)presenting (showing to a group)collaborating (team activities)debating, negotiatingdocumentingimplementing / associating (to accomplish a task)practicing (for specific disciplines)sensing (monitoring)operating (controlling systems / tools / environments)Typology of learning spacesLong & Ehrmann, 2005 E-learning spaceLMS evaluation
  • Designed for people, not technologies (‘comfortable’ for human activities, easy to use)
  • Can be optimised for certain learning activities (not just stuffed with technology)
  • Enables technologies to be brought into the space (rather than having them build into the space)
  • Provides small- and large-group learning spaces, as well as spaces for individual study
  • Based on Long & Ehrmann, 2005Innovating Together
  • E-learning has not yet reached its potential in HE
  • Wider adoption of the teaching and learning innovation is needed
  • PD interventions can facilitate innovative approaches to teaching
  • E-learning technologies (including LMS) need to be designed to make teaching innovation possible, rather than focus on the mainstream teaching practices.
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