Political Theory

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Political Theory There have been many political theories over centuries, and mainly the last two centuries withsome major events that happened in Europe, such as French Revolution in 1789, and later the Russian Revolution that brought Communism to the country later. During these two centuries until nowadays, the basic economic system prevailing is Capitalism based on theory of capital that has existed and survived in the world since ancient years. Of course each political and financial system is
    Political Theory  There have been many political theoriesover centuries, and mainly the last twocenturies withsome major events thathappened in Europe, such as FrenchRevolution in 1789, and later the RussianRevolution that brought Communism tothe country later. During these twocenturies until nowadays, the basiceconomic system prevailing is Capitalismbased on theory of capital that hasexisted and survived in the world sinceancient years. Of course each politicaland financial system is base on arelative theory that produces ideology inall terms. Since 1789 with FrenchRevolution, and until say 1989, with thechute of Communism in the Eastern bloccountries, there have been too manychange in Europe mainly after MiddleAges and chute of feudalism. Theupcoming civil class with FrenchRevolution in Europe that caused chuteof feudal system, as well as IndustryRevolution and industrial Progress with  new means and sources,brought these sources to the hands of big merchants, the owners of means of productionand thus a new era for Capital andcapitalism commenced. Hence, also theParis Commune with Leon Bloom in1871, and even some years before theindustry Revolution prepared the way forflourishing of other theories such asMarxist theory of Marx and Engels,causing Revolution in Russia andCommunism in all countries of EastEurope, until 1989, when ex Communismfell, and modern years of Capitalism andnowadays globalization have beenestablished in Europe and all over theworld more or less. Then political and thus financial systemare based on theories produced at atime, and we ’ ll now see, how somemajor Spiritualists and Philosophers, such as Rousseau, Hegel and Marx,face the issue of political theories, andpolitical as well as financial systems in  regard to their own theories and thecriteria on which these theories arebased. After chute of Feudalism, and theRenaissance era, in the 15-16 th centuries, there was even a spiritualRevolution in Europe, mostly in France,after the religious wars betweenCatholics and Protestants, before FrenchRevolution there was an era for fewdecades called Elucidation. Therepresentatives of that new steam calledSpiritualists, such as Montesquieu and Jean Jacques Rousseau influenced verymuch the political system of France andcontributed to Revolution. It was thusthe era of Spirit and Letters, mentalityon political theory changed little by little,and mental horizon of people by meansof these theories got more wide, and bymeans of French Revolution, the wholepolitical and social system was about tochange. Rousseau (28 June 1770-2 July1831), among books that he wrote were, ‘’  The Spirit of Law ’’ and ‘’ Social  Contract ’’ , two similar books in which hetreats Monarchy and Sovereignty assystems that limit freedom of people,thus social freedom, by means of law.As social freedom is based on naturallaw, monarchs who apply law, being theresponsible and competent ones to applymay limit freedom, against individualreal freedom. In his book ‘’ SocialContract ’’ (  Jean Jacques Rousseau,Social Contract, Publishe Sfakianakis, Athens, Greece, 1978, page 97), he cites: ‘’ How would we like a political system?Would Social contract ensure individualfreedom, or is I about to limit one ’ snatural freedom, based on natural law? Then he moreover claims that themonarchy system is what contributes toconstitution of Social Contract, whereasanybody would sacrifice his/her ownfreedom for the ‘’ sake of society. Andalso, within society, all people arecorrelated and interrelated, withinpredetermined relationships, whichdefine inndividual ’ s social role, in
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