Research Topics for the Information-Age Paradigm of Education

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Research Topics for the Information-Age Paradigm of Education. Charles M. Reigeluth Co-Director, AECT FutureMinds Initiative Professor, Instructional Systems Technology Indiana University reigelut@indiana.edu. Overview. Paradigm change: What is it? Has it ever happened before?
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Research Topics for the Information-Age Paradigm of EducationCharles M. ReigeluthCo-Director, AECT FutureMinds InitiativeProfessor, Instructional Systems TechnologyIndiana Universityreigelut@indiana.eduOverview
  • Paradigm change: What is it?
  • Has it ever happened before?
  • Why is it needed in Taiwan today?
  • What might it be like in education?
  • Areas for research to advance paradigm change in education
  • Instructional theory for the new paradigm
  • New roles for the new paradigm
  • New roles for technology
  • 1. Paradigm Change: What Is It? Piecemeal Change Paradigm Change Fix Replace Reform Transform New part New paradigmHorse to Railroad Candle to Electric light2. Has It Ever Happened Before?History of major paradigm shifts in society.Toffler’s three great waves of change. • Development of agriculture • Industrial revolution (physical capabilities) • Information revolution (mental capabilities)Each wave of change brought paradigm shifts in all of society’s systems.2. Has It Ever Happened Before?Waves of change: AgrarianIndustrialInformationFamily: ExtendedNuclearWorking-parent familyfamilyfamilyParadigm Shifts2. Has It Ever Happened Before?Waves of change: AgrarianIndustrialInformationFamily: ExtendedNuclearWorking-parent familyfamilyfamilyBusiness: FamilyBureaucracyTeamParadigm Shifts2. Has It Ever Happened Before?Waves of change: AgrarianIndustrialInformationFamily: ExtendedNuclearWorking-parent familyfamilyfamilyBusiness: FamilyBureaucracyTeamTransportation: HorseTrainPlane, carParadigm Shifts2. Has It Ever Happened Before?Waves of change: AgrarianIndustrialInformationFamily: ExtendedNuclearWorking-parent familyfamilyfamilyBusiness: FamilyBureaucracyTeamTransportation: HorseTrainPlane, carOthers: Health care, communication, legal , political …Paradigm Shifts2. Has It Ever Happened Before?Waves of change: AgrarianIndustrialInformationFamily: ExtendedNuclearWorking-parent familyfamilyfamilyBusiness: FamilyBureaucracyTeamTransportation: HorseTrainPlane, carEducation: ?Paradigm Shifts2. Has It Ever Happened Before?Waves of change: AgrarianIndustrialInformationFamily: ExtendedNuclearWorking-parent familyfamilyfamilyBusiness: FamilyBureaucracyTeamTransportation: HorseTrainPlane, carEducation: One-roomCurrent?schoolhousesystemParadigm Shifts3. Paradigm Change: Do We Really Need It?Big changes in society cause (require) systemic changes in all societal systems.Society has changed in ways that make our current paradigm obsolete. Systemic change is driven by pull (new needs) and push (new means).Knowledge work has replaced manual labor as the predominant form of work.4. Paradigm Change: What Might It Be Like? Industrial Age Information AgeStandardization, uniformity Customization, diversityTop-down control Autonomy, accountabilityCompliance InitiativeAdversarial relationships Collaborative relationshipsCompartmentalization Holism (Division of Labor) (Integration of tasks)Some Major Differences4. Paradigm Change: What Might It Be Like? People learn at different rates . . . .Fixed content in fixed time  achievement to vary  sorting Appropriate in Industrial Age4. Paradigm Change: What Might It Be Like?
  • People learn at different rates . . . .
  • Sorting vs. Learning
  • How focus on learning?
  • 4. Paradigm Change: What Might It Be Like? People learn at different rates . . . . Sorting vs. Learning Time-based progress Attainment-based4. Paradigm Change: What Might It Be Like? People learn at different rates . . . . Sorting vs. Learning Time-based progress Attainment-basedHow? Group-based progressPerson-basedCustomized rather than standardized4. Paradigm Change: What Might It Be Like? People learn at different rates . . . . Sorting vs. Learning Time-based progress Attainment-based Group-based Person-basedHow? Teacher-based Resource-basedTech + Human touch4. Paradigm Change: What Might It Be Like? People learn at different rates . . . . Sorting vs. Learning Time-based progress Attainment-based Group-based Person-based Teacher-based Resource-basedA key: The report cardCriterion vs. Norm-based assessment4. Paradigm Change: What Might It Be Like? General Features • Keep working on a standard until it is learned • Move on as soon as it is learned (Avoid waste!) • Customized, personalized learning • Intrinsic motivation, self-direction • Performance-based assessment (PBA) • Performance-based learning (PBL) • Collaborative learning (teams) • 21st Century Skills • Teacher as coach or facilitator (New role) • New roles for technology4. Paradigm Change: What Might It Be Like? New Roles1.Teacher as designer, facilitator, mentor
  • Student as active, self-directed learner
  • Parent as partner in learning
  • Technology as central to learning
  • 5. Areas for Research & Develop-ment to Advance Paradigm Change in Education
  • Instructional theory for the new paradigm
  • Technology tools for the new paradigm
  • The transformation process
  • 5.1 Instructional Theory for the New ParadigmTwo major parts:
  • Project-based learning (Project space)
  • Instructional support (Instructional space)
  • 5.1 Instructional Theory for the New Paradigm
  • A theory for project-based instruction: Methods
  • Selecting a good project or problem
  • Forming groups
  • A tutor facilitates higher learning (metacognitive & teaming skills)
  • Use of authentic assessment
  • Use of thorough debriefing activities
  • Others
  • (Savery, 2009)5.1 Instructional Theory for the New Paradigm
  • A theory for project-based instruction: A vision
  • Computer-based simulation (virtual world, ILE)
  • John Bransford’s STAR Legacy
  • Coach (virtual pedagogical agent)
  • Scaffolding
  • Project sequence
  • Simplifying Conditions Method5.1 Instructional Theory for the New Paradigm
  • A theory for project-based instruction: Problems
  • Ensuring and assessing individual mastery
  • Promoting transfer to new situations
  • Promoting efficiency
  • Automatization of skills
  • Solutions: A visionDoes this make sense? Comments?5.1 Instructional Theory for the New Paradigm
  • Instructional support (“space” or “overlay”)
  • For skill learning (including HOTS):
  • G-E-P
  • Built-in immediate feedback, guidance
  • Learner control
  • Automatization when appropriate
  • Integration of teaching & testing, criterion
  • Individual certification
  • 5.1 Instructional Theory for the New Paradigm
  • Instructional support (“space” or “overlay”)
  • For causal understandingFor conceptual understandingFor memorizationFor attitudes and valuesFor emotional and social developmentVolume III of Instructional-Design Theories & Models5.2 Technology for the New Paradigm1.Record-keeping for student learning
  • Planning for student learning
  • Instruction for student learning
  • Assessment for student learning
  • Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES)Reigeluth, W. Watson. S. Watson, Dutta, Chen & Powell, 20085.2 Technology for the New ParadigmSeamless IntegrationNeed to seamlessly integrate all functionsArchitecture and InterfaceOpen architecture (LINUX, Firefox, Moodle)Customizable user interface (Facebook, iGoogle)Modularity (iPhone & Android apps)Interoperability5.2 Technology for the New ParadigmTeachers would struggle without well developed tools Chicken-and-egg problem Need for government investment to develop PIES5.3 Process for Transforming School SystemsParadigm change is far more difficult than reform.
  • Comprehensive – everything must change.
  • Mindset change is crucial – it cannot be top-down.
  • Need for knowledge about the transformation process.
  • Existing systems versus New systems?
  • ConclusionThe Need for Research & Development!Automobile infrastructure S-curve of system developmentConclusionPerformanceS CurveTimeConclusionPerformanceS CurvesTimeConclusionTime-based system must waste student talent.
  • Paradigm change is desperately needed.
  • Paradigm change is far more difficult than reform.
  • We need more knowledge about instructional theory, technology, and the transformation process.
  • We need to develop tools for teachers (PIES)
  • Must have government investment for R&DComments or questions?reigelut@indiana.edu
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