Studies on Some Engineering Properties of Faba Bean Seeds

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 5
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report

Nature & Wildlife


Views: 17 | Pages: 5

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Various physical and mechanical properties of three different germplasm of faba bean seeds were evaluated.The average seed length of germplasm IC-0595985,IC-0595986 and IC-0595991were 8.71±0.66, 8.47±0.50 and 7.93±0.65mm,respectively. The three
  Studies on Some Engineering Properties of Faba Bean Seeds PREM KUMAR SUNDARAM * , ANIL KUMAR SINGH AND SANTOSH KUMAR ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna-800 014 (Bihar) India  ABSTRACT  Various physical and mechanical properties of three different germplasm of faba  bean seeds were evaluated.The average seed length of germplasm IC-0595985,IC-0595986 and IC-0595991were 8.71±0.66, 8.47±0.50 and 7.93±0.65mm,respectively. The three Indian germplasm of faba bean were found much lesser in dimension compared to the Egyptian varieties of faba bean. The geometricmean diameter, sphericity, thousand seeds mass and porosity were alsodetermined.The averages of bulk density were 0.923±0.008, 0.918±0.014 and0.88±0.002 g/cc, for germplasm IC-0595985, IC-0595986 and IC-0595991respectively .The coefficient of friction of seeds on two surfaces viz plywoodand galvanized iron sheet were determined and it was observed that it was highest (0.42 ± 0.022) for plywood and lowest (0.38 ± 0.011) for GI sheet. Keywords: faba bean,dimension, bulk density, coefficient of friction and angleof repose INTRODUCTION Pulses are the main source of proteins for  vegetarians.Globally, faba bean ( Vicia faba   L.), isthird most important feed grain legume after soybean ( Glycine max   L.), and pea ( Pisum sativum  L.) with a total production of 4.87 MT and harvestedarea of 2.63 Mha, as reported by Mihailovic et al. (2005). In India, about 15-30 per cent of the daily protein needs are supplied from edible legumesor pulses. Razia Akbar (2000) reported the practiceof cultivation and soil enhancing properties of faba  bean in India. Being one of the most potentialcrops to serve humanity at global level,unfortunately in India it is still treated as a minor legume / unutilized / underutilizedcrop (Singh et al., 2009; Singh et al  ., 2012). China is currently the world leading producer with 60% of the total yield followed by Northern Europe, Mediterranean,Ethiopia, Central and East Asia and Latin America (FAOSTAT, 2009).It is cultivated during winter (states of seasons)in plains and during rainy season ( Kharif  ) in hilly and mountainous region. It is as an agronomically  viable alternative to cereal grains (Singh et al  .,2013). It is being taken as sole crop and asintercropped/mixed crops with variety of combination even as border / guard crop ineastern India (Singh et al  ., 2009 and Singh et al., 2012).Each year, seed developers release many  varieties into the market that provide improvedproductivity and adaptability to adverseconditions. These varieties are nearly similar intheir characteristics and different in their properties. Knowledge of faba bean physical andmechanical properties are very important in thedesign equipment for handling, drying, aeration,storing structures and processing.Faba bean size and shape varies with, variety andseed moisture content. Fraser et al.  (1978)reported that for faba bean, the thousand seedmass, angle of repose and static coefficient of friction increased with an increase in moisturecontent while bulk density decreased. Abu El-Kheir (1988) indicated that faba bean seedcharacteristic dimensions and varieties might have an effect on threshing and cleaningefficiencies. The seed form and dimensions areconsidered important as limiting factors inpassing the grain between the concave holes for separating and cleaning machine. He alsoreported that there is a significant difference inseed dimensions with varieties of faba bean. There *Corresponding Author E-mail:  ARTICLE INFO Received on:21.01.2014Revised received on:27.01.2014 Accepted on:05.03.2014Published online:27.03.2014 ISSN : 2348-8808 (Print ), 2348-8867 (Online)  Journal of AgriSearch 1(1):4-8  [Journal of AgriSearch, Vol.1, No.1] are also very good reasons why the frictionalproperties of seeds should be known. To namesome examples: estimation of power requirementsfor the transportation of the product; calculatingthe lateral pressure in a silo wall. Such data willnot only affect the shapes and dimensions of storage, flow characteristics in the handling, andmethods of processing units, but also overall costs. The objective of this study was to investigatephysical, namely, axial dimensions, thousandseed weight, geometric mean diameter,Sphericity,bulk density, true density, porosity, andmechanical properties namely angle of repose andcoefficient of friction of three different faba beanseed varieties. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sample Preparation Faba bean was cultivated in the field of ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region,Patna,Bihar. The seeds obtained from crop were cleanedmanually with freshwater to remove all foreignmaterials and approximately 1 kg of seeds of each varieties were taken for the study. Measurement of Moisture  The moisture content of faba bean seeds wasdetermined using American Society of  Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) standard method(ASAE, 4). Predetermined quantity of seed samples were dried in a hot air oven and weight at regular interval after cooling the samples. The process iscontinued till constant weight was obtained. Themoisture content on Wet basis of faba bean seeds was calculated using equation (1) Moisture content (%)=seedsof  weight Initial seeds)of  weight Final-seedsof  weight (Initial (Eq.1)  Axial Dimensions  The axial dimensions includes length, breadthand thickness of the seeds. Fifty seeds of each variety were randomly selected from the lots todetermine the average size of the faba bean seed.Measurements of the three major perpendicular dimensions of the seed were carried out with a digital caliper to an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Thegeometric mean diameter, D g of theseed wascalculated by using the equation (2) (Mohsenin,1986):Dg = (LWT) 1/3 (Eq.2) Where,D g  = Geometric Mean Diameter, mm;L=Length, mm; W=Width,mm and T= Thickness,mm. Sphericity  The sphericity ( φ  ), of faba bean seeds is calculatedusing the following equation (3) (Mohsenin, 1970):(Eq.3)  Thousand Seed Weight  The weight of 1000 seed was obtained by counting1000 seeds at the desired moisture content and weighed on an electronic balance.Average of fivereplications along with standard deviation ispresented. Bulk Density Bulk density and porosity affect the structuralloads. The bulk density is the ratio of the masssample of the seeds to its total volume. It wasdetermined by filling a 1000 cc container withseeds from a height of about 15 cm, and then weighing the contents. The bulk density wascalculated using the equation (4). vw b =  ρ  (Eq.4) Where, =Bulk density, gm/cm 3 ; W =Weight of seed sample, gm and V = volume of seed sample,cm 3  True Density  The true density was determined using toluenedisplacement method in order to avoid absorptionof water during experiment (Jha, 1999; Singh &Goswami, 1996). It is the ratio of the mass of faba  bean seeds to their true volume of the seeds. Theseeds were used to displace toluene in a measuring cylinder after their masses had beenmeasured. The true density was found as anaverage of the ratio of their masses to the volumeof toluene displaced by the seeds. Porosity  The porosity was determined by the followingequation:(Eq. 5) Where and are the bulk and true densitiesrespectively (Mohsenin, 1970). Engineering Properties of Faba Bean Seeds5 φ = [ LWT  ] 1/3 L   [Journal of AgriSearch, Vol.1, No.1] Coefficient of Friction  The coefficient of friction between seed and wallis an important parameter in the prediction of seed pressure on walls. The coefficient of frictionof the faba bean seeds on three different surfacessuch as GI sheet, plywood and Plastic laminates were determined. These are common materialsused for transportation, storage and handlingoperations of grains, pulses and seeds,construction of storage and drying bins. A tiltingplatform of 400 mm×200mm was fabricated andused for fabrication in experimentation. An-openended PVC pipe having 63 mm diameter and 40mm height was filled with the seed and placed onthe adjustable titling surface. The cylinder wasraised slightly so as not to touch the surface. Thestructural surface with the cylinder resting on it  was inclined gradually with a screw jack, untilthe material started to flow (Lorenzen, 1959) andthe angle of tilt was read from a graduated scale(Fraser et al., 1978; Dutta et al., 6; Nimkar et al., 2005). The coefficient of friction was calculatedusing the equation (6). α  µ   tan = s (Eq. 6) Where, is coefficient of friction; and is angle of inclination of material surface.  Angle of Repose  The angle of repose indicates the cohesionproperties of the seed. The angle of repose of faba  bean seeds was measured by the emptying method(Bart-Plange and Baryeh, 2003). The angle of repose was determined by using an open endedrigid PVC pipe having 63 mm diameter and 500mm height. The cylinder was placed at the centreof circular plate having a diameter 700 mm and was filled with faba bean seeds. The cylinder wasraised slowly until it formed a cone. The height of  Sundaram et al6 the cone was recorded by using a movable pointer fixed on a stand having a scale of 0.1 mm precision. The angle of repose ( θ  ) was calculated usingequation (7).  D H  2tan  1 − = θ  (Eq. 7) Where, θ   is angle of repose in degree, H is theheight of the cone in mm and D is the diameter of cone in mm. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Axial dimensions are important in determiningaperture sizes and other parameters in machinedesign (Mohsenin,1986). The average seedmoisture at the time of experiment was10.10±0.33% on dry basis. The average seedlength of germplasm IC-0595985, IC-0595986 andIC-0595991were 8.71±0.66, 8.47±0.50 and7.93±0.65mm, respectively; however the width of the respective germplasm were 6.72±0.39,6.30±0.36 and 6.26±0.32mm (Table 1). These threeIndian germplasms of faba bean were found muchlesser in dimension compared to the Egyptian varieties of faba bean as reported by Shoughy and Amer(2006).The sphericity which is a measureof roundness of the object, of germplasm IC-0595985, IC-0595986 and IC-0595991 were foundto be 81.35±3.38, 78.55±2.55 and 83.03±4.42.Shoughy and Amer, (2006) reported a lesser rangeof spherecity i.e. 65-70 for Egyptian faba bean. Thismeans that the Indian varieties of faba bean aremuch rounder than the Egyptian counterparts. The averages of bulk density were 0.923±0.008,0.918±0.014 and 0.88±0.002 g/cm 3 , for germplasmIC-0595985, IC-0595986 and IC-0595991respectively (Table 1). The bulk densities of germplasm IC-0595991 were found 4.66 and 4.14  Table 1: Descriptive statistics for Faba bean seeds at moisture contents of 10.10% (db)  ParticularsGermplasmsIC-0595985IC-0595986IC-0595991 Length (L),mm8.71±0.668.47±0.507.93±0.65 Width (W),mm6.72±0.396.30±0.366.26±0.32 Thickness (T), mm6.05±0.425.51±0.335.71±0.33Geometric Mean Diameter (GMD),mm7.07±0.436.64±0.336.57±0.33Sphericity81.35±3.3878.55±2.5583.03±4.42 Thousand seed weight, g287.0±5.01281.80±7.26239.40±11.74Bulk density, g/cm 3 0.923±0.0080.918±0.0140.88±0.002 True density, g/cm 3 1.338±0.0351.336±0.0111.287±0.017Porosity, %31.034±1.3831.264±1.4331.49±1.05 Angle of repose, degree22.25±1.6622.86±1.3121.29±0.74  [Journal of AgriSearch, Vol.1, No.1] per cent less than IC-0595985 and IC-0595986respectively. The porosity of the seeds of faba beanof germplasm IC-0595985, IC-0595986 and IC-0595991 were 31.034±1.38 %, 31.264±1.43 % and31.49±1.05 % respectively.these properties should be evaluated at different moisture content conditionsso as to establishrelationship between moisture content and various engineering properties of faba beanseeds. Engineering Properties of Faba Bean Seeds7  Table 2: Frictional properties of faba bean seeds at moisture contents of 10.10% (db) Coefficient ofGI sheetPlywoodfrictionIC-0595985IC-0595986IC-0595991IC-0595985IC-0595986IC-0595991 N555555Mean0.390.390.380.430.420.41SD0.0130.0140.0110.0220.0190.011NB: N is the number of samples  The average value of angle of repose of the faba  bean seed was found between 21.29° to 22.86°. It  was observed that the mean angle of repose isconsiderably lower than that reported for sesameseed as 32° by Tunde-Akintunde and Akintunde,(2004), and mean angle of repose of pumpkin and watermelon (Altuntas, 2008). The smoother outer surface and the shape of the seeds are apparently responsible for the lower values of repose angle,and thus the easiness of the seeds to slide on eachother. The results of the coefficient of friction, whichmay directly and indirectly affecting the design of the processing machine, was determined on twodifferent material surfaces (galvanized iron sheet and plywood), have been tabulated in table 2. It  was observed that the coefficient of friction washighest (0.42 ± 0.022) for plywood and lowest (0.38± 0.011) for GI sheet. The least coefficient of friction may be owing to the smoother and morepolished surface of the GI sheet than the other materials used. This data on the coefficient of friction will be important for designing any pneumatic conveying system, screw conveyors,forage harvesters and threshers, etc. CONCLUSION  The mean length, geometric mean diameter,spherecity, bulk density, true density, porosity,angle of repose, coefficient of friction of germplasmIC-0595985of faba bean seeds at 10.10 % moisturecontent were 8.71± 0.66mm, 7.07±0.43mm,81.35±3.38,0.923±0.008g/cm 3 ,1.338±0.035 g/cm 3 , 31.034±1.38%, 22.25°±1.66 and 0.39±0.013respectively. The other two germplasm alsoshowed almost similar properties. There is not much significant difference in the engineeringproperties amongst the three germplasm. However  REFERENCES  Abu El-Kheir, MM. 1988.Performance of the Turkishmachine for threshing and separation of faba  beans.Misr J. of Agric. Eng.  5 (1):64-74. Akintunde- Tunde TY and Akintunde BO.2004. Somephysical properties of sesame seed. Biosystems Engineerin  g 88 (1):127-129. Altuntas E. 2008. Some physical properties of pumpkin(Cucurbita pepo L.) and watermelon (Citrulluslanatus L.) seeds. Tarim bilimleri dergisi. 14  : 62-69. ASAE. 1998. ASAE S410.1 DEC97 Moisturemeasurement of peanut. In: ASAE standards,45th edition. 560–561.Bart-Plange, A and Baryeh, E.A. 2003. The Physicalproperties of category B cocoa beans.  Journal of Food Engineering    60 : 219-227.Dutta SK, Nema, VK and Bharadwaj RK.1988. Physicalproperties of gram.  Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research    66:  259-268.FAOSTAT. 2009. Production Stat: Crops. FAO statisticaldatabases (FAO stat), food and agricultureorganization of the United Nations (FAO),http:// Fraser,BM, Verma SS and Muir WE.1978. SomePhysical properties of fababeans.  Journal of  Agricultural Engineering Research 23 : 53-57. Jha, SN.1999. Physical and hydroscopic properties of Makhana.  Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research    72  :145-150.Lorenzen C. 1959. Moisture effect on coefficient of friction of small grains. ASAE Paper No. 59-416.Mihailovic VA, Mikiae B, Aeupina and Eriae. P. 2005.Field pea and vetches in Serbia and Montenegro. Grain Legumes 44 :25-26.Mohsenin NN. 1986. Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials.2nd Edition New York: Gordonand Breach Science Publishers.Nimkar PM, Mandwe DS and Dudhe RM. 2005.Physical properties of moth gram. Biosystem Engineering 91 :183-189.  [Journal of AgriSearch, Vol.1, No.1] Razia Akbar (Tr.) 2000.Nuskha Dar Fanni-Falahat: (The Art of Agriculture); (Persion Manuscript Compiled In The 17  Th  Century by the MughalPrince DaraShikoh) (Agri-History Bulletin No.3) Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.,pp. 98.Shoughy MI and Amer MI. 2006. Physical andmechanical properties of faba bean seeds. Misr  J. Ag. Eng  . 23 (2): 434 – 447.Singh AK, Bhatt BP, Sundaram PK, Gupta AK and SinghD.2013.Planting geometry to optimize growth andproductivity in faba bean ( Vicia faba   L.) and soilfertility.  Journal of Environmental Biology 34 :117-122.Singh AK, Bhatt BP, Sundaram PK, Chandra N,Bharati Sundaram et al8 RC and Patel SK.2012. Faba bean ( Vicia faba   L.)phenology and performance in response to itsseed size class and planting depth. Int. J. Agril.Stat. Sci.   8  : 97-109.Singh AK, Dimree SK, Khan MA and Upadhyaya A.2009. Agronomic Evaluation of faba bean ( Vicia  faba   L.) performance under impending climatechange situation. National Symposium onRecent Global Developments in the Management of Plant Genetic Resources. Indian Society of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, pp. 171-179.Singh KK and Goswami TK.1996. Physical propertiesof cumin seed.  Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 64 :  93–98. CORRECT CITATION Sundaram PK, Singh AK and Kumar S. 2014. Studies on Some Engineering Properties of Faba Bean Seeds.  Journal of AgriSearch 1 (1) : 4-8.
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!