Unit 4 Area of Study 1: The Human Resource Management Function

of 38
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report
Category:

Documents

Published:

Views: 15 | Pages: 38

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Description
Unit 4 Area of Study 1: The Human Resource Management Function. Chapter 10: Management of the employment cycle. The Employment Cycle. The stages an employee progresses through from the time they are employed until they leave the organisation
Transcript
Unit 4 Area of Study 1: The Human Resource Management FunctionChapter 10: Management of the employment cycleThe Employment Cycle
  • The stages an employee progresses through from the time they are employed until they leave the organisation
  • Pattern repeats itself as new employees are hired to replace those leaving
  • Three phases of the employment cycleHR PlanningJob analysis and job designRecruitmentSelectionEmployment ArrangementsRemunerationVoluntary MethodsInvoluntary MethodsUnfair DismissalTermination ManagementOutplacementTransition ServicesInductionTraining and developmentPerformance ManagementRecognition and rewardsThe Establishment PhaseHuman Resource Planning
  • Planning for future personnel needs, taking into account both internal activities and factors in the external environment
  • Awareness of factors from internal and external environment include:
  • Structural changes in the labour market – decline in manufacturing industries
  • Work patterns are changing – flexible working hours and a move away from traditional working week
  • (continued on next slide)
  • Length of working life is changing – later entry into employment, attitudes to retirement
  • Change in skills and education expectations – more people seeking tertiary qualifications
  • Labour shortage within the next decade due to the ageing of Australia’s working population
  • Increasing demand for work-life balance
  • Generational change – difference need to be acknowledged and worked around
  • Change in strategic direction of organisations – downsizing operations
  • HR Management must plan to assist the organisation to:
  • Meet current employment requirements in all phases of the employment cycle
  • Cater for future needs by determining how many employees will be required and what specific skills they must have
  • Ensure that the required human resources will be available to achieve the organisations strategic plan
  • Be in a position to assist the organisation to respond to external factors
  • Activity 10.1
  • Job Analysis
  • Job analysis: systematic process of gathering information relating to a job being performed. Finding out all the information about a job.
  • Job design: creating a new job or altering an existing position.
  • Job description: written statement of tasks performed, how and why they are done (job title, summary, responsibilities, duties, key performance indicators)
  • Job specification: the person’s experience, qualifications, skills, abilities, knowledge, remuneration and special requirements of the person
  • Methods used to conduct a job analysis:
  • 1. Interviewing the present job holder – can be time consuming
  • 2. Questionnaires – allows for information on a large number of jobs to be collected in a short period of time
  • 3. Observation – job holder could be watched
  • 4. Supervisory reports – details provided by supervision to give perception of what the job entails
  • 5. Log books and daily work diaries – completed by the job holder
  • Activity 10.2 Worksheet
  • Recruitment
  • The process of finding the best qualified pool of applicants
  • Process begins with:
  • Identifying human resource requirements
  • Determining where the qualified pool of applicants can be found (recruitment sources)
  • Choosing a specific means of attracting employees to the organisation (recruitment methods)
  • Identifying human resource requirements
  • Ensure that people recruited and selected have the unique skills and attributes required by the organisation
  • Determine whether the focus is on technical skills and formal qualifications or personality and the potential for personal and career development
  • Recruitment Sources
  • Internal Recruitment: positions advertised within the organisation to allow employees career advancement by transferring or being promoted
  • External Recruitment: Locating candidates from outside of the organisationRecruitment Methods
  • Newspapers – large, well-known employment sections in certain editions of local and national newspapers
  • Internet sites – those seeking jobs can enter specific details of the position they want
  • Business websites – often used in conjunction with other methods
  • Recruitment agencies – time is money so an organisation may outsource the initial stages of recruitment who screens out non-suitable applicants
  • Word of mouth – ‘head hunting’ is actively pursuing one person wanted for a position and offering them an attractive package to leave organisation for which they currently work
  • Activity 10.3
  • Activity 10.5
  • SelectionSelection CriteriaA list of what the organisation is looking for in the applicants for new positionsInclude:Qualifications or experienceSkillsPersonal qualities
  • Selection is the process undertaken by an organisation to decide whether to make a job offer to a candidate
  • Receipt of applicationInitial screeningEliminates applicants who do not possess the skills and expertise required for the positionShortlist of applicants to be created for interviewing
  • Application: the letter or communication used in expressing interest in a job or advertised vacancy
  • Application form: basic source of employment information covering qualifications, experience and other job-related data
  • InterviewsTestingProvides a scientific component to recruitmentAptitude test: test of special abilities that are required for a specific jobPersonality or temperament questionnaireMotivational questionnaireCompetency testingPhysical examination
  • 1. Planning the interview
  • 2. Create the interview environment
  • 3. Opening the interview
  • 4. Questioning
  • 5. Understand the legal requirements
  • 6. Listen and observe
  • 7. Sell the job and the organisation
  • 8. Close the interview
  • 9. Evaluate the applicants
  • Background investigationAdvising applicants of outcomePosition needs to be officially offered to the successful applicantRemaining unsuccessful short-listed applicants need to be advised of their non-success
  • Reference checks provide important opportunities to learn more about candidates
  • Wise to check academic qualifications
  • Police check can be undertaken
  • Employment Arrangements
  • Permanent full-time basis – continuing contract of employment, working 38 hours per week, entitled to salary or wages, leave entitlements and superannuation as well as long service leave
  • Permanent part-time basis – continuing contract working fewer hours than full-time, same entitlements made on a pro-rata basis
  • Casual basis – short-term, irregular or seasonal work. Usually paid on an hourly basis and no employment benefits such as leave
  • Fixed-term basis – either full-time or part-time for project work or to replace employees absent on long service or parental leave
  • Types of remuneration
  • Wages – worked out on an hourly basis, overtime paid if an employee exceeds ordinary hours. Penalty rates may be paid for Sundays and public holidays.
  • Salary – annual figure usually paid on a monthly or fortnightly basis. Overtime not paid to salaried employees.
  • Packages – use for senior positions, include a salary component, performance-based pay, company car, share options and other fringe benefits
  • Benefits – can be categorised as dependent care assistance programs (family care, maternity/paternity leave, alternative work arrangements) or benefit plans (additional superannuation, travel insurance, life insurance, medical benefits)
  • Maintenance PhaseInduction
  • Induction: all the activities undertaken by the organisation to introduce a new employee to the organisation
  • Aim is to familiarise the new employee with their workplace so that they can perform to their maximum ability as soon as possible
  • Induction ProceduresBenefits of InductionFor the organisation: recruitment process costly and a good induction program can help the employee feel motivated and ensure morale is high.Allows them to be productive almost straight awayFor the employee:Will be put at ease with a well-conducted induction programFeel a sense of purpose and achievement, increasing their feelings of self-esteem
  • New employee introduced to colleagues and organisational structure and day-to-day practices
  • Often a buddy or mentor is assigned to the new employee to show the new person the ropes
  • Policies and procedures of the organisation should be explained to the new staff member. Can be a formal induction process.
  • Even mundane matters should be covered
  • Training and Development
  • Training: process of developing workplace skills needed to do a job
  • May be necessary right at the start of employment.
  • HR Manager conducts a training needs analysis:
  • Who needs to be trained?
  • Should training be done at the organisation or outside?
  • If internally should training be provided by someone in-house or by an external provider?
  • How is the training going to be evaluated?
  • Will follow-up training be required at a later date?
  • Development: activities an employee undertakes to help prepare them to take on more responsibility in the future (e.g. promotions and long term opportunities)
  • Training is often skill based (e.g. learning how to operate a new piece of machinery) whereas development focuses more on increasing the knowledge base of employees.
  • Benefits of training and development:
  • Improved employee performance and therefore profitability
  • Reduced absenteeism and reduced staff turnover
  • Increased efficiency in how things are done (processes)
  • Increased job satisfaction, morale and motivation among employees
  • Recognition and Rewards
  • Recognition programs may acknowledge achievement by giving financial and/or non-financial rewards
  • Rewards may be given for:
  • Achieving a target
  • Being the best compared with others
  • Performance Management
  • Performance management: the various methods of achieving the maximum performance levels that are possible from employees
  • Effective performance management ensures that:
  • Jobs are well designed in the first place
  • Skilled employees are hired to do the job
  • Employees are trained properly
  • Employees are appropriately rewarded for good performance
  • Performance appraisal: evaluations of an employee’s work over a period of time
  • Involves:
  • Assessing how well an employee is doing their job
  • Providing feedback to the employee about job performance
  • Agreeing on new objectives and establishing a plan to improve future performance
  • Purpose of appraisal is to:
  • Identify what objectives are the most important to accomplish
  • Establish how objectives are measured so that performance can be monitor
  • Make individual employees accountable for their performance
  • Help improve an employee’s performance
  • Identify training needs
  • Performance appraisal outcomes
  • Remuneration and rewards
  • Training and development
  • Counselling
  • Job promotion
  • Job rotation/transfer
  • Termination
  • Termination PhaseVoluntary Termination Methods
  • Resignation: An employee chooses to leave an organisation – often this is because they have another job to go to
  • An exit interview is recommended as it helps to highlight if there are any organisational problems causing the resignation
  • Retirement: The situation where an employee has decided that they are at the end of their working life.
  • Has traditionally ben at the age of 65 for men and 60 for women but is not compulsory in Australia
  • Involuntary Termination Methods
  • Redundancy: when there is no longer a position for one or more employees. Redundancy packages are offered which is usually an amount of money based on the number of employment at that organisation
  • Retrenchment: Employees are ‘let go’ based on the financial needs of the organisation (e.g. downsizing)
  • Dismissal: Situation where an employee is fired due to a serious breach of their employment contract or fail to perform the job adequately (have been put ‘on notice’ and fail to improve their performance)
  • Effects on an organisation from involuntary employee departure.Unfair Dismissal
  • An employee can apply to Fair Work Australia if they believe their employment was terminated for an unlawful or discriminatory reason
  • Termination Management
  • HR Manager must ensure that an employee who is leaving is given certain entitlements
  • It is also their job to see that the transition from employment to termination is conducted appropriately and within the law
  • In the case of redundancy the HR manager should:
  • Have explored the possibility of redeploying or relocating the employee
  • Give the employee reasonable notice of the expected redundancy
  • Provide reasonable redundancy benefits
  • Provide additional services
  • Ensure the process of choosing who is to be made redundant is fair and unbiased
  • Outplacement Services
  • Services provided to assist employees who have been retrenched to gain new work
  • 60% of LSOs in Australia not provide outplacement consultants to assist employees making the transition
  • Involves:
  • Counselling to counteract negative feelings associated with retrenchment
  • Skill development in how to look for employment opportunities
  • Assistance in writing resumes, interview techniques
  • Cost is borne by the former employer and is seen as rewarding the employee for loyal service
  • Shows remaining staff that organisation cares about its people
  • Transition Services
  • Provided to employees who are retiring and need assistance to organise their finances, lifestyle planning and volunteering activities
  • Employees often find it hard to completely cut themselves off from the business world
  • Recommended
    View more...
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks
    SAVE OUR EARTH

    We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

    More details...

    Sign Now!

    We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

    x